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Lives in the Yiddish Theatre



Maurice Schwartz
(Avraham Moshe)


Born in Sedikov (Zhidachov), Ukraine. Father -- Yitzhak Isaac -- a pious, grains merchant, who was not able to provide for his family and had immigrated to America. Learned in a cheder, then in an elementary school.

At the age of nine --as he recounts in his memoirs --published in the "Forward" under the name "Maurice Schwartz Dertsehlt (Says)" -- sang as an "alto" with the local cantor R' Ahrele and then with Yankl Schwartztimer in Biala Tserkov. Through the choirboy Leibele Bass, who later became the opera singer Leopold Miller in Berlin, he became known to cantors and for  theatre songs.

He went with his mother and the other children through Liverpool to his father in America, but due to a history with a "half (one-way) ticket", he had to remain by himself in England, and at eleven years of age, he went away to work in a rag factory in London.

He became sick from the difficult work, and he lost his last means of support and became an ordinary vagabond, who roamed pointlessly around the streets, the night spent in the underground trains, went around in torn clothes and detached like a homeless bum. With time he began to sing with a cantor and also became caught up in Yiddish theatre and saw Malvina Lobel as "Shulamis" which left an exceptional impression on him. At last his father arrived in London and took him over to America.

In New York S. began to learn in the Baron Hirsch school on East Broadway, but the impression that Yiddish theatre left him no longer relaxed. He pressed his desire for the theatre in "imitating" the people from his environment. For his bar mitzvah he mixed in (inserted) into the drash (his bar mitzvah lecture) a  demanding monologue of "Kibutsenzon un hungerman", which he had heard and learned. S., with the help of his uncle Mendel, a theatre patriot, secretly attended the Yiddish theatre, taken from his father into his rag shop, learning in the evening with a German teacher, who read German classics to him and also Shakespeare,

heard by going to the shul, schlepped around the Yiddish theatres, neglected the work for his father, leaving home, slept on the benches in the gardens of New York, was on several days a "messenger" belonging to the "Western Union Telegraph Company", returned home again took to working with his father, sang during work with the workers the theatre songs, which he had heard in the theatre, and [during] Shabbes "he made theatre" for the worker by "imitating" the actors. S. became a frequent theatre attendee, and an ardent follower of Mogulesko, then he became excited about the other stars, such as Kessler and Adler et al., and as he pressed on.

"From each day on [seeing Kessler in "East Side Ghetto"], my patriotism to my Kessler received an entirely new use. I felt that I must not be a blind slave, just to belong to a band of patriots (blind fans). I wanted to be the Chasid for each good actor, and the Yiddish theatre was then chock-filled with great actors. I had love for the Feinmans, I was in love with Moshkovitsh's art of speaking on the stage. He was also appealing for his Beautifully, proud figure. For me, I was also taken with Elias Rothstein and the comic Samuel Tornberg. However, in the presence of the Kessler patriots, they dared not utter the other actors names."

S. spent entire nights reading plays and novels and came to propose work, learning the once popular declamation "Dr. Gran" by David Edelshtat, which he recited for the "Delancy Street Dramatic Club", where he also acted out a scene from Adler's successful play "Shlomo hakhokhem", and he was taken in as a member of the club.

In his memoirs, S. told an entire episode about the struggle that in each time occurred between the "patriots" of the stars, and stresses, that a change in his entire look at Yiddish theatre took place when he has attended the "Progressive Dramatic Club", and heard several Yiddish theatre lectures by Joel Entin:

"He had for the members of the dramatic club displayed the straight path of the actor. With explanations and parables, he manifested and stressed that the true actor is the person who can be as natural as a human being in life, even shout out sounds with each gesture, every sigh and groan, each smile cannot be an imitation, but sincerely as an equal, he wanted to be a part of life. After the lectures, I began not only to feel, but also what true theatre had to be."

S. now first began to think as an actor, memorized a monologue from "Chatzkel drakhme", and came to the decision that he would exaggerate, more theatrically than in reality, acting out the "work" scenes for his household almost to see the effort(?), which however was very weak, and ceased to be affected by the stars (?), but his independence in his approach to theatre. He met with (the future actors) Nathan Goldberg, the Finkental sisters (the future Chana Hollander and Rose Goldberg), Annie Roitman, Sam Heller, Joseph Schwartzberg and Nathan Ikofsky to Bridgeport, when they performed in Zolotarevsky's "Der tsvantsikster yorhundert". Hungry, he returned to New York. Here he was invited by Philip Augenblik and "Der royter fisher" to act in Brownsville, and in "Singer" Hall in Gordin's "Der vilder mentsh", Jacob P. Adler arrived at the theatre and they forbid the play in which he had the individual production rights, but they performed the play, then they performed Zolotarevsky's "Dertsvantsikstr yorhundert", and S. returned home again with six dollars from nine performances. He also acted in the same play (role of "Father") in "Teutonic" Hall. Here the former theatre director Leo Largman saw him act, after which he took him out and he engaged him for eight dollars a week to act in Baltimore, and gave him an extra dollar for directing the stage. However, S. had to act for free during the months of May, June, July and August. The productions began in Patterson, where there was performed "Er shtn in gan-eden (The Devil in the Garden of Eden)" (with S. in the role of "Leyzerke der royter"). Then he played "Eliezer" in "The Sacrifice of Isaac" and received a dollar a week, and a contract after a year. The troupe went off to Baltimore, where they acted at first in a hall, and then in the "Bijou" Theatre. S. soon went over to the troupe of Morris Goldberg (his wife Clara Rafala, Schwartzberg, Sam Auerbach, et al), and here it was possible for him to look for his work in the "Auditorium" Theatre in Cincinnati:

"...Here I was also an actor, a stage manager [stage director]. To be a stage manager at that time meant to drag the scenery, furniture, make up the understudies, pack, keep on packing [unpacking]. The work to us, however, was love, because I had learned the technical side of theatre, but due to the neglect of Clara's husband, I was to become the unofficial regisseur (stage director). As it was, I had in fact not known as the director as such, but I began from rehearsals to do things that had a substantial value. ... I had created the fake beards and demanded that the actors should be gluing onto their natural beards. Goldberg and the actors protested that they were able to and displayed more of us, because I was a youth who had not been specifically trained in the theatre, but .. Clara had called out the troupe, and they said that she had intended us to give the entire direction, not only to direct the stage, but also to allocate the roles and create rehearsals for the actors. ... I had from my savings of thirty dollars purchased from an English troupe a great bargain -- ten new, magnificent projects [reflectors], and began to experiment with lighting".

The first play that S. directed was Gordin's "Der yidishr glikh", playing the role of the father. The play (with Boris and Rose Rosenthal, Isidor Meltzer, with Toyerman and Zilberbush, Clara Rafala, Schwartzberg et al.) was first played in Indianapolis. The Chicago theatre director Elias Glickman saw S. act, and after acting for him in the prologue of "God, Man and Devil" (the monologue of the devil), S. became engaged to him in Chicago on Wabash Street for fifteen dollars a week. S. remained there for a short time and then went over to the theatre on Jefferson Street (Sam Weinstein and father -- managers), where he directed, due to the closer stage, short plays and sketches, but the fire department closed the theatre, and S. then returned to New York where for the 1907-8 season he became engaged by Anshel Schorr for twenty-three dollars a week for his theatre in Philadelphia on Green Street (where Mike Thomashefsky was the manager, and where the troupe consisted of Charles and Ida Nathanson, Sam Kestin, Fanny Thomashefsky, Yetta Blank, Boris Rosenthal and his wife, and Jacob or Avraham Schwartz). S. performed here as "Todrus" in "Yeshiva bukher", and received for the first time a main role in Rakov's play "Der arbeter". His success evoked a huge jealousy from the stars of the troupe, the Nathansons who came out against S.'s acting, who threatened to leave the troupe if S. was not eliminated (from the troupe), especially after the songs of praise from the "Tog" writer Turkel . Mike Thomashefsky threatened to remove S. from the troupe, which evoked an article of protest from Turkel and protests from the visitors, and at first when the actor Zager became sick, S. was brought back to the theatre to act at the last minute in his role. The troupe then went over to the Arch Street Theatre, where the star was Max Rosenthal. S. fought to act only in small roles, became sick and in that condition acted in the role of "Baron Kefild" in "Kin" with the guest-starring Morris Morrison, who mentioned him to David Kessler, upon his return to New York. Kessler came to Philadelphia, and saw S. act in the role of "De Santos" in "Uriel Acosta".

The actress Amelia Adler, who in that period acted with Schwartz in Philadelphia, recalls in her memoirs:

"S. even then was oddly equipped from among the other actors. He always carried around books, acting in everything that was given to him. As a younger actor, the older ones exploited him,[ so they could be] free some evenings, and they had [allowed him to] improvise extemporaneously when performing for older actors, and so it came out that the younger Schwartz had acted night by night, yet this did not hinder him from accepting invitations to various events [set up by] companies and unions. There he used to recite monologues or act out scenes. They felt that the younger actor "broke himself (rayst zikh)". It was very difficult for him."

About that epoch, Zalmen Zylbercweig recalls:

"In 1912 Esther Rukhl Kaminska returned from her guest roles across America. I then had a shmooze with her about Yiddish theatre in America. With a special interest  I asked about the actors, and here Esther Rukhl Kaminska declared to me, that in Philadelphia there is a young actor Maurice Schwartz, that he is a "fire-flame", that one will have from him only great pleasure."

After S. served in the Green Theatre in Philadelphia for a summer theatre, he performed there in sketches together with Celia Adler, and he also wrote his first play, a one-acter with a long monologue, especially for his partner. S. fought for permission for Adler to act in Gordin's "Vilder mentsh", to his benefit, but at the same time it was advertised that Adler came to act in the same play in the "Academy of Music", and S. had to end the playing of Sharkansky's "Kol Nidre", where he was playing the role of "Cardinal Poulus".

Returning to New York, he became  recommended through Sholem Perlmutter to act with Malvina Lobel in the role of the "lawyer" in "Madame X", performing for the actor Louis Hyman, whose name headed the program. This performance by S. was S.'s first time in a large role in New York with prominent actors, which evoked such a look that this fact decided the next stage fate of S.

In his book "Mayn lebn in teater", Boaz Young recalls in detail how S. came to act for the first time in a recognized theatre in New York. David Kessler went to play in the province, and the "Thalia" Theatre was looking for a role player to play the young role of "lawyer" in "Madame X" with Malvina Lobel, and when S. just then was in New York he was strongly recommended by Morris Morrison, and Young engaged him for the role.

S. returned to Philadelphia and was called on by Perlmutter for New York to see Kessler, who already returned from the province. Kessler soon engaged him for thirty dollars a week [according to Young -- twenty-seven dollars]  to act in the Second Avenue Theatre, which was just built, but because the productions for the "Lyric" Theatre came here, S. had to perform as "Chatzkel Drachme" in "God, Man and Devil", but when he had to go onto the stage, the actor Simonoff praised him this way, and S. acted in the role at first the very next day, immediately receiving a raise in pay to perform for Kessler, and a contract for a year. The "Second Avenue" Theatre opened on 1 September 1911 with "God, Man and Devil", in which S. played "Chatzkel Drachme". Schildkraut came to the production and wished unconditionally, at his expense, to send S. to Berlin and Reinhardt. S. acted there then in "Shloimke Sharlatan" in the role of "Beynush" and in several [other] important roles.

On 13 December 1912, in the Lipzin Theatre, there was staged S.'s Yiddish translation of "Dos hoyz nekste dor (The House Next Door)", by J. Hartley Manners.

In 1913, when S. acted in the "Royal" Theatre, he staged there on 11 April (with Malvina Lobel) his first play "Der volkn". Sholem Perlmutter wrote about it:

"Although the play had no noisy audience, Schwartz however demonstrated his leaning to not only perform theatre, but also to write for the theatre. ... Schwartz had displayed his ambition for the best Yiddish theatre in his younger years when he had acted just in the "National Roof Garden". He is almost the only one in the Yiddish theatre who does not look for a great role in a play, but he understands that the play as a whole is the important force that brings the audience into the theatre".

Osip Dymov recalls:

"When I arrived in New York in 1913, they showed us with pride the "shpat" (a special electrical lighting) that the younger theatrical revolutionary Schwartz had introduced for our money. The presentation had cost six dollars. This was the first investment that the not-yet-built "Art Theatre" had dedicated to its audience".

In the 1913-14 season, S. made an attempt [to be accepted into] the Yiddish Actors Union in the role of "De Santos" from "Uriel Acosta", and as "Uriel Mazik" from "God, Man and Devil", and was with ninety-six votes against eleven, not accepted as a member. However, David Kessler soon gave him then the opportunity to perform in the title role of "Uriel Acosta". The failure of his attempt had a deep resonance among the theatre-goers, and also in the "Yiddish workshops", whence the efforts of Max Pine and Joseph Barondess arranged a second attempt for him with the Actors Union, in the role of "Chatzkel Drachme" from "God, Man and Devil", "Charif" from "Der yidisher kenig lir (The Jewish King Lear)", and "Cardinal Poulus" in "Kol Nidre". When the time of the test neared, S. went off to the editor of the "Forward", and performed for the editor Abe Cahan (live and in costume) the "talis" scene from "Chatzkel Drachme". Cahan was so touched by his acting that he declared that the union must take him in. The test occurred in a "heated" atmosphere, and S. was taken in with a small majority.

Soon thereafter Kessler gave him to act the role of "Nimond"  in "Yede froy". S. acted in the role of "Hirsh Ber" in Kobrin's "Yankel Boyle" and "Apolon" in Gordin's "Sappho", including a close friendship with the poets Moishe Nadir and Mose Leib Halpern (the group came together in "Di dray mshs"), and during the conflict between David Kessler and his partners, the theatre director Max R. Wilner, was forced by the manager of the Actors Union, Hershl Tsukerberg, to act in Kessler's roles when Kessler left the theatre. S. was engaged by Edelstein in the "People's" Theatre for one hundred and twenty dollars a week, but he did not take the repertoire to heart, and he freed himself from acting there due to a cold that he got bathing in the sea. Later he returned to join Kessler and act in a character-comical role in Kalmanowitz's "Di vert fun a mame", and also in Steinberg's play "A khaver in lebn", with which he toured in the province. The repertoire satisfied him, but it didn't, and each time when it had, as it was the fashion in that time, a benefit(?). He tried his hand in a fully different repertoire, such as on 23 January 1916 in "Di gayster (The Ghost)" by Ibsen, under Morrison's direction (S. in the role of "Oswald", and Bela Gudinska as "Madame Elving"), on 8 February 1917 with Frances Adler in "Der tants fun libe un toyt" by St. Pshibishevski, translated by Leon Gottlieb, and on 7 March 1918 he staged in Kessler's theatre "Faust" by Goethe, translated -- Moshe Schorr (acting in the role of "Mephisto").

In 1918, when due to the antagonism in America to German, the German theatre in New York went under, as well as the "Irving Place Theatre", where they used to put on German productions. [So both] became free, and S. decided to realize his dream -- to draw on another repertoire.

About this, Sholem Perlmutter wrote:

"...then the Jewish world had been celebrated by various movements of cultural aspirations and achievements, from various dreams and ideals, but one important cultural branch people had been forgotten -- without the theatre arts. There were many great Yiddish actors for Schwartz. There was also a Yiddish theatre builder, who had many times tried to create a literary, artistic theatre, and it was they who did not receive it. ...Schwartz was the first to lay the foundation for a Yiddish art theatre of a high level. And it succeeded thanks to his organizational ability, his endurance, perseverance, economy, energy and stubbornness".

N. Buchwald portrayed the former situation as such:

"... the initiative, around that time, to found an art theatre, actually belongs to Jacob Ben-Ami, Peretz Hirshbein, David Pinski and others, but it realized its place just by Schwartz. ...whether S. had, indeed, delivered ​​the heart of the wretched state of Yiddish shund stage, or only felt the unity of a new theatre clientele, only through his powerful attempt to supplant  on the American soil the newly created Yiddish Art Theatre from Russia. It demanded a handsome degree of boldness in those years forward by those demoralized by the gluttonous shund theatre audience, with such "literary" plays as "A farvosen vinkl (A Faraway Corner)". Maurice Schwartz had the boldness to take a risk. He literally placed in man the existence of his new activities in that one play. But S. took a risk and won. He also won over the theatre sphere in America. How great and right should be the prerequisites against Maurice Schwartz as the director of the Yiddish Art Theatre, he had however, enriched the Yiddish theatre culture and helped create the value that a theatre could wish for -- an audience. ...Of all the Yiddish actors, Maurice Schwartz is the individual whose name has a symbolic and heroic importance. Seen by his abilities and achievements as an actor, Schwartz is thought of as the builder, the creator and martyr of the best Yiddish theatre. When people admire his pure acting power, they admire even more his champion-like work in the struggle against the "shund" theatre, and his self-sacrifice for the ideals of a better theatre".

A. H. Bialin, who published a book about S., wrote:

"In the year 1918 when Schwartz was in the "Irving Place Theatre" as the director of the theatre, it was an important and decisive time. This year definitely next fated his life, to the way in which we see it now. Schwartz in 'Irving Place" was not by himself the entire "speaker of evil". He had a partner Max Wilner who was the main patrician of the theatre. For Max Wilner it was not important that they shouldn't act, it may even be art, but there must be profits. Such an attitude was a great disturbance to Schwarts's artistic ambitions. For two years Schwartz was in the 'Irving Place' with Wilner. In the two years Schwartz made many compromises and opneynungen in which they also had to charge the aforementioned sponsorship".

As S. recalls in his life story, he generally had wanted to open [his new] theatre with Hirshbein's play 'Der shmids tokhter (The Blacksmith's Daughter)' or Strindberg's 'Father'. He compared both plays for his partner Wilner, but the latter was afraid of the broad transition into [this] repertoire, and we had to make certain that for the first play we should put on a play from a popular dramatist, such as Libin, and the second offering should be Hirshbein's play."

The "Irving Place Theatre" opened on 30 August 1918 with Z. Libin's "Der man un zayn shotn (The Man and His Shadow)". The troupe consisted of: Celia Adler, Chana Appel, Jacob Ben-Ami, Berta Gerstin, Jechiel Goldsmith, Ludwig Satz, Anna Meltzer, Mr. and Mrs. Nadolsky, Julius Erber, and Boris and Rose Rosenthal.

The play and the further plays in that season were all directed by S.:

  • On 25 September there was staged Bernard Shaw's "Mrs. varens profesye (Mrs. Warren's Profession)".

  • 26 September -- "Beylke maraneta (Bella the Marionette)" by B. Botwinick.

  • 4 October -- "Sappho" by Jacob Gordin.

  • 7 October -- "Uriel Acotsa" by Karl Gutskov.

  • 14 October -- "Di royber (The Robbers)" by Frederick Von Schiller.

  • 16 October -- "A farvofrn vinkl (A Faraway Corner)" by Peretz Hirshbein.

The play put on first was "Der shmidt's tekhter (The Blacksmith's Daughter)", according to the advice of Jechiel Goldsmith. S. played the role of the miller. It was staged on a Wednesday evening. The first productions were poorly attended, but it was a big hit. The press soon came out with songs of praise. The Jewish cultural organizations had shown an interest for the offering, and especially were moved each time toward popular and active "shnorer" organizations, such that play continued to perform at the end of the week and had begun draw a very large audience.

The production had laid the seal for the creation of a permanent, better, artistic Yiddish theatre in America.

About the history of Yiddish theatre, B. Gorin writes: (bottom, p. 2334)

"..Maurice Schwartz had displayed a healthy sense when he was not troubled by the weak and isolated and put on 'In a farvosn vinkl (A Faraway Corner)', for a second time and then risked staging the same play on Friday, Shabbes and on Sunday. And here there was also manifested the difference between him and the others, who held to the rabbinical law of the theatre. He hadn't said like the others that this is a coincidence, only he had immediately appreciated that it was creating a new theatre audience for whom the Nordic drama was dead, and he was overjoyed to become the director of the new Yiddish drama".

S. directed in that same season and played the main roles in the following plays:

  • 18 October 1918 -- "Dos gayster-hoyz (A Doll's House)" by Avraham Shomer.

  • 25 October 1918 -- "Di dervakhung fun a folk (The Awakening of the People)" by Osip Dymov.

  • 30 October 1918 -- "Di gayster (The Ghost)" by Henrik Ibsen.

  • 31 October 1918 -- "Kreutzer Sonata" by Jacob Gordin.

  • 22 November 1918 -- "Shma Yisrael (Hear, O Israel)" by Osip Dymov.

  • 19 November 1918 -- "Nora" by Henrik Ibsen.

  • 2 December 1918 -- "Dem tayvls froy (The Devil's Wife)" by Karl Shenher.

  • 5 December 1918 -- "Tkhies-hamesim (Resurrection of the Dead)" by L. Tolstoy.

  • 11 December 1918 -- "Krume vegn fun libe (Love's Byways)" by David Pinski.

  • 16 January 1919 -- "Professor Bernardi" by Arthur Schnitzler.

  • 17 January 1919 -- "Der yidisher kenig lir (The Jewish King Lear)", by Jacob Gordin.

  • 1 February 1919 -- "Mirele Efros" by Jacob Gordin.

  • 7 February 1919 -- "Success" by Moishe Nadir.

  • 18 February 1919 -- "Der oytser (The Treasure)" by David Pinski.

  • 21 February 1919 -- "Dem shmids tekhter (The Blacksmith's Daughter)" by Peretz Hirshbein.

According to S. in his memoirs, the troupe split apart, and several important members went over to the "New Yiddish Theatre", under the direction of Schnitzer.

With the remaining members of the troupe, S. further directed with the theatre, where there were staged:

  • 6 March 1919 -- "Gloyb dayn froy (Believe Your Wife)" by Leonid Andreyev.

  • 3 April 1919 -- "Der idealer man (The Ideal Husband)" by Oscar Wilde.

  • 1 May 1919 -- "Der foter (The Father)" by August Strindberg.

  • 6 May 1919 -- "Der emes (The Truth)" by St. Pshibishevski and "Mentshn" by Sholem Aleichem.

Then the theatre went out across the province.

During the second season (1919-1920), S. engaged in his theatre the following actors: Berta Gerstin, Misha and Lucy German, Chana Hollander, Yudel Dubinsky, Muni Weisenfreund, Jennie Valier, Lisa Silbert, Elihu Tenenholz, Avraham Teitelbaum, Menasha Skulnik, Madame Farkoyf, Mark Schweid and Gustave Schacht, and directed with them:

  • 29 August 1919 -- "Tuviya der milkhiger (Tevya the Milkman/Dairyman)", by Sholem Aleichem (role of Tuviya -- S.).

  • 20 October 1919 -- "Di tentserin (The Dancer)" by Lengyel, translated by Hersh Greenblatt.

  • 6 November 1919 -- "God, Man and Devil", by Jacob Gordin (role of "Uriel Mazik" -- S.).

  • 12 November 1919 -- "Di varhayt (The Truth)" by Jacob Gordin.

  • 25 December 1919 -- "Oyfn opgrund (The Lower Depths)" by Maxim Gorky, translated by Mark Schweid.

  • 14 January 1920 -- "Nokh der khasene (After the Wedding)" by Leon Kobrin.

  • 28 January 1920 -- "Di vayse blum (The White Flower)" by Wolfen Leroy, adapted by David Belasco.

  • 4 March 1920 -- "Der memzer (The Bastard)" by Jacob Gordin.

photo, left: Maurice Schwartz as "Tuviya der milkhiger"

  • 11 March 1920 -- "Der zun fun tsvey natsionen (The Son of Two Nations)" by Mark Arnstein.

  • 16 March 1920 -- "Di emese kraft (The True Power)" by Jacob Gordin.

  • 18 March 1920 -- "Dos naye geto (The New Ghetto)" by Theodor Herzl.

  • 2 April 1920 -- "Amol in may (Once in May)" (which S. had earlier played in his Yiddish adaptation in Philadelphia).

  • 8 April 1920 -- "Ganovim (Thieves)", by Fishl Bimko.

  • 21 April 1920 -- "Moshe Fidler (Moishe the Fiddler)" by Joseph Cherniavsky, and "Zaza" by Berton and Simon.

S. had opened the third season in the "Irving Place Theatre" (1920-1921), on 3 September 1920 with I. L. Peretz's "Di goldene keyt", in which he acted in the role of  "R' Shlomo".

  • 1 October 1920 -- "Shver tsu zayn a yid (Hard to Be a Jew)" by Sholem Aleichem, with S. in the role of "David Shapiro".

  • 11 November 1920 -- "Fatima" by Itzhak Katzenelson.

  • 29 November 1920 -- "Yankel Furman" by Arthur Wolf.

  • 16 December 1920 -- "Di letste maskn" by Arthur Schnitzler, "An etz (Advice)", by Sholem Aleichem, an the one-acter "Landsleit" by I. D. Berkovich.

  • 28 December 1920 -- "Etz ha da'at (Tree of Knowledge)", by Jacob Gordin.

  • 31 December 1920 -- "Madame X" by Al. Bison.

  • 5 January 1921 -- "Der vilder mentsh (The Wild Man)" by Jacob Gordin.

  • 7 January 1921 -- "Musette" by  Guy De Maupassant.

  • 15 January 1921 -- "Mieshshanye (Mishstanya)" by Maxim Gorky, translated by Mark Schweid, with S. in the role of "Teteryev".

  • 19 January 1921 -- "Tayvlshe libe" by B. Botwinick.

  • 27 January 1921 -- "Di oygn fun fayer (The Eyes of Fire)" fun Jacinto de Benevente.

  • 17 February 1921 -- "An orimans kholum (A Poor Man's Dream)" by Semyon Yushkevich.

  • 17 March 1921 -- "Shylock" by William Shakespeare.

S. also directed in the season, in Hebrew, "Uriel Acosta" (role of "Uriel").

Due to a disagreement with Jennie Valier, S. had to give up the partnership with Wilner, leave the "Irving Place Theatre", and opened the new season (1921-1922) in the "Garden Theatre" (Madison Avenue and 27th Street), on 1 September 1921 as the "Yiddish Art Theatre, Maurice Schwartz -- director" [For the history of the "Yiddish Art Theatre", see the fourth volume of the "Lexicon of the Yiddish Theatre], with S. Anski's "Der dybuk", music by Joseph Cherniavsky, and acting in the role of "Chanan" (first act), and "Miropoler tsadik" (third act).

  • 2 November 1921 -- S. directed "Der letster yid (The Last Jew)" by Moishe Nadir.

  • 24 November 1921 -- the full play "Landsleit", by I. D. Berkovich.

  • 6 December 1921 -- "Shmates (Rags)" by H. Leivick, with S. in the role of "Mordechai Maze".

  • 5 January 1922 -- Revival of Gutskov's "Uriel Acosta".

  • 12 January 1922 -- "Der gedank (The Though)" by Leonid Andreyev.

  • 2 February 1922 -- "Der toyter mentsh (The Dead Man)" by Sholem Asch.

  • 10 February 1922 -- "Prints lulu (Prince Lulu)" by Leon Kobrin.

  • 3 March 1922 -- "Konkurent (Competitors)" by Jonah Rosenfeld.

  • 22 March 1922 -- "Nellie" by Lida Klepen and Karl von Tsesko, and "Salomea" by Oscar Wilde.

  • 23 March 1922 -- Revival of "Ganovim (Thieves)" by Fishl Bimko.

  • 10 April 1922 -- "Dembes (Oaks)" by Fishl Bimko.

  • 10 May 1922 -- "Uncle Vanya" by Anton Chekhov.


photo, left: Maurice Schwartz as "Mordechai Maze" in "Shmates".

For the 1922-1923 season , S. opened his "Yiddish Art Theatre" with the following ensemble: Bina Abramowitz, Chana Appel, Yechiel Goldsmith, Misha German, Berta Gerstin, I. Honigman, Muni Weisenfreund, Bessie Mogulesko, Gershon Rubin, Joseph Schwartzberg, Moshe Strassberg and Mark Schweid, and directed the following;

  • 23 September 1922 -- "Andersh (New Worlds, aka Different)" by H. Leivick.

  • 6 October 1922 -- Under the direction of Wiskovsky -- "Revizor" by Gogol, with S. in the role of "Khlestakov".

  • 23 October 1922 -- "Motke ganev (Motke the Thief)" by Sholem Asch.

  • 30 November 1922 -- "Don Juan" by Moliere.

  • 8 December 1922 -- "Dos groyse gevins (The Big Winner)" by Sholem Aleichem, with S. in the role of "Shimele Seroker".

  • 26 December 1922 -- "Drey un der man" by Gabriela Zapolska.

  • 8 February 1923 -- "Anathema" by Leonid Andreyev, with S. in the role of "Anathema".

The success of the play was tremendous, and from all sides came suggestions that S. should stage and acted in the plays in English.

The troupe further played in:

  • 26 March 1923 -- "Skopiens shmd-shtik" by Moliere.

  • 13 April 1923 -- "Yizkor (Remembrance)" by Harry Sackler.

However S., who took the theatre on 48th Street and there directed in the English translation of Herman Bernstein Andreyev's "Anathema", in which he acted in the role of "David Leyzer" in English. About this first attempt with English theatre, S. wrote in his life history:

"...The premiere of 'Anathema' in English was the sensation until after the performance. In the morning the English critics wrote that in English the play lost its dramatic impact due to the fact [that] the English actor, who portrayed 'Anathema', didn't form the [same] temperament that Schwartz had created in Yiddish. John Edison wrote wrote that 'When Schwartz and Weisenfreund were acting in their original roles in English, the play was a great success'. More had not been needed, whether on Broadway or elsewhere. The good critic -- is the sky opening itself.... By no means bad -- the theatre closed. ... the box office began to become bad. ...the losses were terrible both in English, as well as in the Art Theatre, where they performed, we remember, for empty houses. The several weeks on Broadway had ruined me. ...after four weeks they had also returned from Broadway with many honors, but empty pockets., and when I again found myself with my friends on our stage in the Art Theatre ..I had acted each eight with great joy in all my Yiddish roles. I revelled (or delighted) in the Yiddish tongue.

S. toured with his troupe across the American province, and the revenue was so great that he was able to cover up the deficit.

S. opened the new season (1923-24) of the "Art Theatre" with the following personnel: Bina Abramowitz, Julius Adler, Ben Tsvi Baratov, Wolf Goldfaden, Berta Gerstin, Yudel Dubinsky, Lisa Silbert, Elihu Tenenholtz, Boaz Young, Lea Meltzer, Jacob Mestel, Izidor Cashier, Moshe Strassberg and Mark Schweid, and soon attracted the guest-starring Leonid Sniegov and his wife Esther Orzhevska.

  • On 31 August 1923 the theatre opened with "Shabse tsvi" by Y. Zhulavsky, translated by I. J. Singer, with S. as "Shabse Tsvi".

  • 8 October 1923 -- Under the direction of L. Sniegov, "Di zibn gehongene (The Seven Who Were Hanged)".

  • 20 November 1923 -- "Betler (Beggars)" by H. Leivick.

  • 14 December 1923 -- "Broyt (Bread)" by Osip Dymov.

  • 26 December 1923 -- "Lialkes (Dolls)" by Jacinto de Benavente.

  • 25 January 1924 -- "Di tsvey kuni lemels (The Two Kuni Lemels)" by Avraham Goldfaden, in S.'s adaptation, with him in the role of the true Kuni Lemel.

  • 14 February 1924 -- "Der blutiker gelekhter" (Hinkeman), by Ernst Toller, translation by Liliput.

The production of "Kuni Lemel" evoked such an interest, also in the non-Jewish circles, that S. was invited by Professor Somerville to give a lecture in English for the students of New York University about Yiddish theatre and the Goldfaden epoch, and he has performed there since then for a certain time, a few times each year with several lectures for the students.

On 6 April 1924, S., with his entire troupe (the women: Bina Abramowitz, Chana Appel, Berta Gerstin, Bella Finkel, Anna Bordovska, Jennie Cashier, and the men: Muni Weisenfreund, Izidor Cashier, Wolf Goldfaden, Jacob Mestel, Elihu Tenenholtz, Lazar Freed, Mark Schweid, Leon Zeiderberg, Moshe Strassberg and Joseph Schwartzberg), as well as the main mechanic Julius Levy, electrician David Gold, properties managers Sam(?) and costumer Sam Indin), went to Europe, taking with them their own furniture, costumes, properties and electrical effects for twelve plays. The business agents were the actors Moshe Dovid Vaksman and Hersh Greenblatt, agent for the troupe, Jacob Mestel and Madame Kraft as press agent, who was traveling in advance.

The first production arrived in London's "New Scala" Theatre on 16 April 1924, then in the Picadilly area in the "Prince Avenue William Theatre". The productions in London lasted for eight weeks.

[The actor Wolf Goldfaden recalls the tour in detail in his article "Our First Trip to Europe", in the notebook collection that the "Yiddish Art Theatre" had issued at the ceremonial opening of the same house, on 12th Street and Second Avenue, 18 November 1926, and also Maurice Schwartz in his account in the "Forward"].

In Paris the troupe acted in "Theatre Edouard VII" for two weeks, and they had a proposal to continue acting in the "Theatre Sarah Bernhardt", but due to a prior arrangement to film Sackler's "Yizkor" in Vienna, the troupe with S. at its head went to Vienna, Austria, for the production and word concerts once a week that lasted for four week's time.

The well-known German critic Libshteckel(sp), compared S.'s acting as "Oswald" in Ibsen's "Ghosts" with the famous German actor Moisey, and had written: "Schwartz plays Oswald and Moisey speaks Oswald".

The repertoire of the troupe consisted of the following twelve plays:

  • "Shabse tsvi"

  • "Di tsvey kuni lemels"

  • "Tuviya der milkhiger"

  • "Di zibn gehangene"

  • "Mieshtshanye"

  • "Shver tsu zayn a yid"

  • "Di gayster"

  • "Dos groyse gevins"

  • "Dem shmids tekhter"

  • "Der blutiker gelekhter"

  • "Landsleit"

  • "Moshke khazir (Moshke the Swine)"

In Vienna, under the direction of Sidney Goldin, S. filmed the sound film "Yizkor" by Harry Sackler.

As S. recalls in his life history that the tour brought him a huge amount of material deficit, due to the tremendous output, and due to his short visit to London.

Returning to New York, S. opened the new (seventh) season (1924-25) of his "Art Theatre" with the following personnel: Chana Appel, Bina Abramowitz, Ben-Zion Baratov, Wolf Goldfaden, Muni Weisenfreund, Avraham and Anna Teitelbaum, Elihu Tennenholtz, H. Mayzel, Jacob Mestel, Lazar Freed, Avraham Fishkind, Izidor Cashier, Maurice Schwartz, Mark Schweid, Morris Strassberg and Leah Rosen.

photo, above: Maurice Schwartz as "
The Bobe Yachne" in "Di kishuf-makherin".


It was on 2 September 1924 that the offering of Anski's "Dybbuk" was revived, and then came the premieres of:

  • 29 September 1924 -- "Moshke khazir (Moshke the Swine)" by I. D. Berkowitz.

  • 21 October 1924 -- "Gvald, ven shtarbt er? (When Will We Die?) by Chone Gottesfeld.

  • 24 November 1924 -- "Shaydim vaysn vas (The Devil Knows What)" by Peretz Hirshbein.

  • 4 December 1924 -- "Velf (Wolves)" by Romain Rolland.

About the production, M. Osherowitz remarked:

"In the play women participated, but Maurice Schwartz's side, having set in America a play whose cast of characters hasn't a single woman, has taken many risks. Schwartz has divided the roles among the best then that he has in his troupe."

  • 5 February 1925 -- "Feter der groyser" by D. Merezhkovski.

  • 11 March 1925 -- S.'s adaptation of Avraham Goldfaden's "Di kishufmakerin (The Witch/Sorceress)".

  • 27 April 1925 -- A revival of Leon Kobrin's "Yankel Boyle".

However, the "Madison Square Garden" Theatre was torn down, and S. went over with his "Art Theatre" for the new season (tenth) (1925-26) to the "Nora Bayes" Theatre, which he opened on 17 September 1925 with "Shaul hamelekh (King Saul)", by Paul Heyse, translated by Mark Schweid.

  • 19 October 1925 -- S. under the pseudonym of M. Charnoff, directed his own play "Shakespeare and Company".

  • 6 November 1925 -- "Der luft-mentsh" by Semyon Yushkevich, translated by Oskar Katerzhinski.

  • 10 December 1925 -- "A shnirl perl (A String of Pearls)" by Sholem Asch.

  • 24 December 1925 -- "Der krayd-tsirkl (The Chalk Circle)" by Klabund.

  • 21 January 1926 -- "Der tzadiks nesie (The Saint's Journey)" by Harry Sackler.

  • 18 March 1926 -- A revival of "Shamates (Rags)" by H. Leivick.

For the 1926-27 season, S. went over with his "Art Theatre" in a special for the theatre of Louis G. Jaffe-built stages on 12th Street and Second Avenue [later known as the "Folks" Theatre], with the following ensemble: Celia Adler, Chana Appel, Ben-Zion Baratov, Joseph Buloff, Berta Gerstin, Wolf Goldfaden, Moshe Silberkasten, Anna Teitelbaum, Lazar Freed, Avraham Fishkind, Jacob Cone, Luba Kadison, Izidor Cashier, Moshe Strassberg and Maurice Schwartz, as well as a dramatic studio that brought forth the future Yiddish actors: Itzhak Roitblum, Pinchas Sherman, Boris Weiner, Michael Rosenberg, Simeon Ruskin, Avraham Kubansky, Boruch Lumet, Ben Geiling, Mordechai Yachson and Sonia Radina.

The inauguration of the house arrived in a formal manner with the opening of the season with:

  • 18 November 1926 -- The premiere of "Dos tsente gebot (The Tenth Commandment)" (la tkhmud), a musical play in three acts and six scenes by Avraham Goldfaden, freely adapted and stage directed by Maurice Schwartz, music (freely from Goldfaden) by Joseph Achron, settings and costumes by Boruch Aronson, ballet dance by Michael Fokine, conductor -- Lazar Weiner".

Honoring the holiday, there was published a special issue, richly illustrated, with articles in Yiddish by Maurice Schwartz, S. Niger, Dr. A. Mukdoni, Dr. Jacob Shatzky, a series of greetings from Yiddish writers, poets, dramatists and institutions, the building of the Louis N. Jaffe Theatre stage, the painter B. Aronson, Wolf Goldfaden, Moshe Starkman ("Repertoire of the Yiddish Art Theatre"), and in English, from regisseur Richard Boleslovski, Maximilian Hurwitz and a series of welcomes.

In the season there was staged in the theatre:

  • 23 December 1926 -- "Mendel Spivack" by Semion Yushkevich.

  • 3 March 1927 -- "Reverend Dr. Silver" by Sholem Asch, and "Yoshke muzikant (Yoshke the Musician)" by Osip Dymov.

  • 25 March 1927 -- "Mengshn shtoyb (Human Dust)" by Osip Dymov.

S. opened the 1927-28 season with:

  • "Greenberg's Daughters" by Morris Adershleger, then he directed the plays:

  • "Dem gertner's hunt (The Gardener's Dog)" by Lope De Vega.

  • "Alexander Pushkin" by Valentino Carrera,

  • "Goldgreber (The Gold Diggers)" by  Sholem Aleichem.

  • "Oyf fremde erd (On Foreign Soil)" by Saint Andrea.

  • 1 March 1928 -- "American Chasidim" by Chone Gottesfeld.

For the 1928-29 season, S. directed the "Art Theatre", where he directed on:

  • 14 September 1928 -- S.'s dramatization "Kiddush Hashem" by Sholem Asch, S. acting in the role of "Shneiderl".

  • 21 December 1928 -- "God, Man and Devil", a drama in three acts and four scenes by Jacob Gordin, dramatized and directed by Maurice Schwartz, settings by Mordechai Gorelick, costumes -- Maud and Kotler, music -- Joseph Brody".

  • 15 February 1929 -- the American-Yiddish comedy "Major Noah" by Harry Sackler, and ended the season on

  • 6 March 1929 -- with "Stempenyu the Fiddler, a romantic comedy by Sholem Aleichem, dramatized and directed by Maurice Schwartz, settings and costumes by B. Aronson, music -- Joseph Achron", with S. in the role of "The Father-in-Law", as well as doubling with Lazar Freed in the role of "Stempenyu".

In the same season, S. in the theatre also played "Iago" in Boleslavsky's offering of Shakespeare's "Othello" with Baratov in the title role.

For the 1929-30 season, S. with his "Art Theatre" went over to the "Proctor's Theatre", and opened with his dramatization of Lion Feuchtwanger's "Jew Suss", where he doubled with Samuel Goldenburg as "Hertzog" in "Jew Suss'.

  • 3 December 1929 -- he directed "Malakhim oyf der erd (Angels on Earth), a heaven-earth comedy in seven scenes with a prologue and epilogue by Chone Gottesfeld, settings and costumes -- Boruch Aaronson, music -- G. Tueller".

  • 21 January 1930 -- "Keytn (Chains)" by H. Leivick.

  • 23 January 1930 (ed.) -- Later, his own dramatization of "Blondzhende shtern (Roaming Stars)" by Sholem Aleichem.

From 5 April 1930, S. began to perform in English, in scenes from Shakespeare's "Shylock" in Kitt's vaudeville circuit, with a great success. Here he received an invitation from Argentina's Yiddish theatre director Adolf Mide to come to Argentina, where he directed with the local troupe "Tuviya der milkhiger", "Jew Suss", "God of Vengeance", "The Blacksmith's Daughter", "Hard to be a Jew", Hinkemann", "The Ghost", "Kidddush Hashem", "Konkurentn", "Shabse Tsvi", and "The Seven Who Were Hanged". The visit was an extraordinary success.

Returning to New York, S. opened the new season (1930-1931) of his "Art Theatre" in "Kessler's Second Avenue" Theatre, where he directed:

  • 26 November 1930 -- his dramatization of Sholem Asch's novel "Di kishuf-makherin".

  • And then his dramatization  of Sholem Asch's novel "Uncle Moses". Here S. also directed Kobrin's "Riverside Drive" and Alexander Faiko's "Der man mitn portfel (The Man With the Portfolio)", Yiddish version by Anatol Vinogradov.

After the season he toured with the troupe across the United States and visited for a long time Montreal and Toronto (Canada). Not having any possibility to find a stage for his "Art Theatre", S. tried to go back over to the English stage with Yiddish repertoire.  On 23 September 1931 he directed and acted in the "Ambassador" in Sholem Aleichem's "Hard to be a Jew" ("If I Were You", in the English adaptation of Tamara Berkovich), and Rolland's "Wolves". The fact of his playing English evoked a mixed feeling from the Yiddish press, and A. H. Beilin wrote as such about him:

"In the year 1931 Schwartz made a bold and risky step. It had influenced in him the various pessimistic moods against the Yiddish language in America, and also the poor condition of the Yiddish theatre. He decided to go away from the gentiles on "Broadway', and not by himself, only with the Yiddish Art Theatre {?} That which he had earlier acted in Yiddish, he had taken to acting with in English. It was the same play, the same scenery and the same production, only in another language and with other non-Jewish performers. Schwartz thought  that in a time when the gates into America were closed, Jewish immigrants don't enter, the former immigrants already understand English, many of them truly feel without the English theatres, needs such a theatre, that he would found, would have a great success. He was the founder, director and main actor of the an English theatre, which was actually a conversion from the Yiddish Art Theatre, This year we actually remained a Yiddish art theatre.  ...Schwartz's bold step was not very successful. ...the theatre had existed for a short time. Schwartz soon realized that his place was among Jews, where he was needed".

S. went to Philadelphia to act, where he directed for the first time, on 4 February 1932, "Der gefangener got" by Florencia Santsia, Yiddish by L. Kovenski, made the sound film "Uncle Moses", according to Sholem Asch (director Sidney Goldin), acting in the tile role, and went on to guest-star in Montreal where he also directed Gordin's "God, Man and Devil", acting in several productions in New York's "Folks Theatre", and went on a word concert tour across Europe, performing in Paris, Kovno, Riga and Romania (together with the singer Viola Fila), and in June 1932, S. performed for the first time in Warsaw, with a word concert in the "Philharmonic Hall".


Photos, above: Maurice Schwartz as the "Nyesheve Rabbi" (third act) in "Yoshe Kalb" (last act).

Returning to New York, he opened the 1932-1933 season of his "Art Theatre" on 1 October 1932 on the stage of the 'Folks" Theatre with a dramatization of I. J. Singer's novel "Yoshe Kalb", in two parts and in twenty-six scenes, settings by Alex Chertov, music by Leon Kotzin, dance by Lilien Shapiro".

The offering was one of the great successes in the history of Yiddish theatre. The play was played for an entire season to packed houses, and many times they couldn't enter into the packed theatre, when other Yiddish theatres were comfortable with their existence. The play remained in their permanent repertoire.

For this production, several editions were published as a souvenir journal, all in English (only the program was in Yiddish), with articles from Maximilian Hurwitz, Abe Cahan, Maurice Schwartz, Baruch Etiknson, Arthur Rule, and translated  from articles by L. Kristol, William Edlin, A. Leyeles, Dr. A. Mukdoni, Hillel Rogoff, a letter from Lion Feuchtwanger, Morris Guest, Dr. I. V. Held, Sophia Tucker, Daniel Frohman, Alfred Lunt, Lynn Fontanne, Edward G. Robinson, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Harry Hershfield, Eddie Cantor, Fanny Hearst, Edwin Franco Goldman, William Sheik, et al., the music to the song "In khalkeynu", and many scenes.

The success of "Yoshe Kalb", however, did not present S.'s from putting on new plays, so he directed in November 1932 his dramatization of Sholem Asch's novel "Chaim Lederer", and on 30 November 1932 his own play "Di legende fun yidishn kenig lir (The Legend of the Jewish King Lear), a tragic comedy of a Yiddish actor's life in two parts and fourteen scenes", the scenes of the "Jewish King Lear" were performed according to the original writing of Jacob Gordin, music by Henry Rusoto, a melodramatic motif from Goldfaden, Halevi, Rumshinksy and Fridsell, settings: Alex Chertov". The play was played only for a short time.

After the season, S. toured with his troupe with "Yoshe Kalb" across the American province with a rich success, and opened the 1933-34 season in the "Folks Theatre" with subsequent performances of "Yoshe Kalb".

  • 11 January 1933 -- S. directed Dr. Zipor's "Oyfshtand (Revolt)".

  • 19 October 1933 -- He directed Aaron Zeitlin's fantastic musical comedy "Khelmer hakhokhem (The Wise Men of Chelm" (role of "R' Yosef Loksh").

  • December 1933 -- he directed and acted in the title role in his dramatization of Lio Feuchtwanger's novel "Josephus", in two parts, twenty-two scenes, settings by Robert von Rosen, costumes drawn by Alexander Nemirov and Saul Raskin, dances arranged by Lilien Shapiro".

After the offering there was issued in English a souvenir program with the content of the play, an article written by the author Leo Feuchtwanger, quotations form the English critic and scenes from the production.

At the end of 1933, S. directed in English, in the "National" Theatre (41st Street), Singer's "Yoshe Kalb".

About the season A. H. Beilin writes:

"In the year 1933 Schwartz astonished with his production of "The Wise Men of Chelm" by Aaron Zeitlin. The Yiddish press was excited and deeply praised the production. Schwartz's work, both his acting as well as his directing, and truly was a great achievement. The play, however, did not have any success. ...when Schwartz staged "Josephus" ... a difficult, complicated material for a theatre. It demands a genuine familiarity with that epoch, and a deep understanding if the Josephus type. Schwartz was occupied too much with a new, bold script which he wanted to make for the gentiles, and the production of "Josephus" had to suffer thereof. It was not excluded by the audience, and Schwartz had not made any new productions for the season.

The last two days of the year 1933 were the first and last days of a new attempt that Schwartz had made on Broadway: he staged "Yoshe Kalb" in English. A lot of money and work was expended for the production in which Schwartz had placed great hope. For more than three days they had not played "Yoshe Kalb" in English. The English critics, even those who had praised the same play when performed in Yiddish -- it had been completely torn to pieces when played in English".

 In 1933 there was also published a special volume (40-41) of "Di literarishe bleter" in Warsaw, with assessment articles about the Yiddish Art Theatre, and especially about his creations.


photo, rt.: Maurice Schwartz as "R' Yosef Loksh" in "The Wise Men of Chelm".

S. organized again his group of actors from the "Yiddish Art Theatre", and went with them on a long tour in 1934 across the United States and Canada, acting most of the time in "Yoshe Kalb". Being in Los Angeles, California, he was invited to "MGM" in Hollywood, which was scheduled to make with him large English films of "Shylock", "King Lear", et al., but the plan became unachievable, and S. then went with a member of the "Art Theatre" to Paris, and there directed in April 1935 "Yoshe Kalb", and then in London to "His Majesty Theatre", where he also directed "God, Man and Devil". From there he went to Poland.

About the Polish period, N. Mayzel writes:

"...Maurice Schwartz, the dramatist [of 'Yoshe Kalb"'], had the difficult task of deleting in a happy way (?). What is important is how the dramatization comes out, and on this one can answer with the complete certainty very successful Schwartz and [his] focus. ...The production Maurice Schwartz gave in a broad and rich scope. The Warsaw Yiddish stage had some elbow room after that, that abundance, that wealth not seen. The eyes can pick up quite everything, -- so richly colorful in the production.

...Not looking at how dated the fabric is, people look at the performance of power [from 'Tuviya der milkhiger']; people obey even the brilliant acting and the growth of the disaster at Tevye. ... a neat, moving production that leaves a strong impression.

... The several months that Maurice Schwartz was in Warsaw, he had led the struggle with the Warsaw theatre public: he wanted to show the artistic achievements of Maurice Schwartz as stage director and actor, striving to perform the designed course desired by the Art Theatre, and brought out various moments from his fifteen-year staging activities -- and the wider audience had wanted to see and hear 'Yoshe Kalb'. ... That same offering was the blessing and the curse of the Art Theatre... [in Warsaw], and disturbed his future, normal, artistic activity".

For nine months, Schwartz with the specially organized troupe [composed] of the elite of the Yiddish theatre world in Poland performed in Warsaw, Lodz (where he also staged "Jew Suss"), and Lemberg, and then guest-starring in Vienna and going over to the troupe of the right to perform his repertoire without him (?).

In the span of his stay in Warsaw, S. also printed in the "Literarishe bleter" (N' 49, 1935-- N' 2, 1936) theatrical articles about theatre arts (reprinted in the "New York Weekly.").

An entirely other opinion was printed about him by the actor and writer Itzhak Turkow-Grundberg in his book "Yiddish theatre in Poland", which only writes "according to the line":

"In the year 1935, the popular director of New York's Art Theatre, Maurice Schwartz, organized a theatre in Poland. There remained together a first-class ensemble, that consisted of the majority of the elite of the better Yiddish theatre. He had directed with the entire baggage of his large equipment, lighting effects and  -- American advertisement. His theatre built on the dramatization of I. J. Singer's 'Yoshe Kalb', from which he created a great spectacle, but filled with unhealthy eroticism and sensationalism. The future spectacles: Gordin's 'God, Man and Devil' was already a prub, underscoring the social moments of Gordin's play, an ineffectual attempt , but not substantive; Feuchtwanger's "Jew Suss" was not made, however cold, not reheated from any ideas, and therefore ineffectual; Sholem Aleichem's "Teyve the Milkman", and "Hard to Be a Jew" -- well-acted, traditional spectacles, hence Schwartz could work in Poland, not considering about positively contributing to the development of our [the Polish-German] theatre".

In 1936 S. came back to New York and opened on 49th Street, New York, the 1936-37 season of the "Yiddish Art Theatre":

  • 29 October 1936: "Jacques Bergson" by Victor Felder [S. was really was the composer].

  • 23 December 1936: "Der vaser-treger (The Water Carrier)", with S. as "Simcha Plachta", a folk-comedy in two acts by Jacob Prager, music by A. Olshanetsky [text and music for the song "Yakh trog vaser" written by S.].

  • 8 February 1937: "Di grenets" by Albert Gondert.

S. then went on concerts in Vienna, Austria, and for the first time he visited Eretz Yisrael in 1937, where he performed by acting by himself in Tel Aviv's "Ahl shm" in the play "Yoshe Kalb" in Yiddish, and then he went into the cities and colonies of Eretz Yisrael, and performed word concerts in Yiddish and Hebrew, especially Shaul Tchernichovsky's play "Baruch mmgntsh". He also directed in Hebrew "Yoshe Kalb", with the "Ahl" Theatre and acted in Hebrew in the role of "the Neshever Rabbi".

Returning to New York, S. opened the 1937-38 theatre season of the "Yiddish Art Theatre" in the "Jolson Theatre", with his offering of "The Brothers Ashkenazi", in two parts and seventeen scenes, dramatized by Maurice Schwartz and I. J. Singer, music by Verdina Shlionsky, settings and costumes by Alexander Chertov, dance by Gluck Sandor, musical direction -- Sholom Secunda". The offering also put out in English a souvenir program with an English article by Maurice Schwartz, an introduction for the dramatization, quotations from English critics and personalities, a program in Yiddish and in English, the notes for "Chasidic melodies" by Sholom Secunda and scenes. The play was put on for the entire season, and then S. toured with the troupe across the province, and from there together with the following members of the "Art Theatre": Samuel Goldenburg, Izidor Cashier, Luba Kadison, Lisa Silbert, Helen Beverly, Avraham Teitelbaum, Moshe Silberkasten, Ben Zion Katz, Zalmen Lerer, Harvey Kish and Zelda Margules. They went to Paris, where the play on 1 June 1938 was staged in the "De La Porte St. Martin" Theatre. The scene that was sung in the play "The International", evoked a further wish from Baron Rothschild, and he strove with a great material effort, that the scene should be taken out, and S. had in no way agreed, and in the end results the Baron Rotshchild(?). The matter had evoked a great tumult in the press. From Paris S. went to London, where he acted in the play together with  Samuel Goldenburg and Luba Kadison. S. went from there to Eretz Yisrael, where he directed on 28 August 1938 with the "Ahl" Theatre in Hebrew, the dramatization of "The Brothers Ashkenazi",


photo, rt.: Maurice Schwartz as "Simcha Meir" in "The Brothers Ashkenazi".

performing also in word concerts in Yiddish and Hebrew, and then he returned to America, where he opened in October 1938, for the 1938-1939 season of the "Art Theatre", in a theatre on Seventh Avenue and 59th Street (932 Seventh Avenue -- ed.), his dramatization and direction of Sholem Asch's "Dray shtet (Three Cities)", in two parts (twenty-four scenes), music by Sholom Secunda, settings by Samuel Leve". For the production there was issued a souvenir book in Yiddish and English, from Maurice Schwartz and in English from Maurice Schwartz and Sholem Asch, an introduction for the dramatization, scenes and a musical number by Sholom Secunda. In the same season, S. also directed H. Leivick's play "Ver iz ver (Who is Who?), which he called in his future productions "Dr. Shelling".

In April 1939 S. guest-starred again in Paris, and also directed there with a great success "Der vaser-treger", also directing then, with his own, small troupe in London, "Der vaser-treger" and "Dr. Sheling", returning to America, participating in the "vacation palace" of the "Forward", and he opened on 28 September 1939, the 1939-1940 season in the "Jolson" Theatre with his dramatization of Sholem Asch's "Der tilim yid", and then directed his dramatization of "Ven ikh bin rothshild (If I Were A Rothschild)", according to Sholem Aleichem, interrupted due to illness, and he filmed "Tuvyiah der milkhiger (Tevya the Milkman)" (text and direction by S.), acting in the title role of "Tuviya".

In March 1940 S. acted across the American province, and in the same year he alarmed the Jewish public about the drive for Yiddish theatre, which benefits of Jewish organizations were sold in the non-Yiddish theatres.

In October 1940 S. opened the 1940-41 season of the "Yiddish Art Theatre" in the "Public" Theatre with Aaron Zeitlin's "Esterke" (where he acted in the role of "Lekh"), music by Sholom Secunda,


On 20 November there was staged here, under the direction of Jacob Rotbaum, his dramatization of Sholem Aleichem's  novel "Sender Blank" (with S. in the tile role), music by Sholom Secunda, and S. directed "Fremde veltn (Worlds Apart)" [later called "Drey dorot (Three Generations)"], in two acts and eight scenes, by Benjamin Ressler, music by Sholom Secunda, settings by Alex Chertov.

On 22 November 1941, S. began to print in the "Forward" (on Saturdays and Wednesdays) his life story, under the title "Moris shvarts dertsehlt (Maurice Schwartz Says)", and went then to Argentina, where he acted in the "Soleil" Theatre (Director Charles Groll), and there directed "The Brothers Ashkenazi", "The Water Carrier" by Jacob Prager, and "Two Generations" by Benjamin Ressler.

For the 1941-42 season, S. opened the "Art Theatre" in the "Jolson" Theatre on 6 October 1941 with "Yom hdin (The Day of Judgment)" by Yochanan (John) Sorsky, dramatized by S., music by Lazar Klatzman, settings by Alex Chertoff.

January-February 1942 -- S. went on word concerts, with Miriam Rubini of Argentina across the Midwest region of the United States, and on 2 April 1942 again took to guest-starring in Buenos Aires, in the "Soleil" Theatre (Director: Charles Groll), where he directed under the auspices of Sholem Asch "Der tilim yid".

photo, lt.: Maurice Schwartz as "Lekh" in "Esterke".

On 20 November 1942, S. directed in Spanish, in the "National" Theatre, Anski's "Dybuk", with the Argentinean actors Anita La Salle and Edouard Kitinia at its head, as well as the musical comedy "Esta notsha filmason" with Spanish comic Kodiko in the main role. S. prepared to make several productions in Spanish afterwards, but he had to cut it shrb due to his father's death in the Land of Israel, putting together a troupe in New York for the member of the "Art Theatre", and he made a tour with them across America and Canada.

For the 1943-44 season, S. opened the "Art Theatre" in the "Adelphi" Theatre with his dramatization of "The Family Carnovsky" by I. J. Singer (acting in the role of "Dr. Carnovsky"). The play was performed for the entire season, and then S. toured with the play across the province.

The 1945-46 season for the "Art Theatre" was opened by S. in the "Public" Theatre, with the production on 1 October 1945 of "Drey matonus (Three Gifts)", a musical folkshpiel in two parts and twelve scenes, from I. L. Peretz, music by Joseph Rumshinsky, dramatized by Melach Ravitch and Maurice Schwartz, settings by H. A. Condell, dance by Lilien Shapiro. All of the songs or the work by I. L. Peretz" (acting in the role of "Yoel"), then he directed "Doctor Herzl", by H. R. Lenz and N. Giloff, music by Joseph Rumshinsky, settings by H. A. Condell (acting in the role of "Dr. Herzl").

After the season S. with the troupe went across other New York Yiddish theatres and then across the American and Canadian provinces, and went again to guest-star in Argentina.

S. opened the 1946-47 season of the "Art Theatre" in the "Public" Theatre as a social theatre, with his productions of "Shylock and his Daughter, by Ari Ibn-Zahav, a drama in two parts and fourteen scenes, dramatized and directed by Maurice Schwartz, music by Joseph Rumshinsky, settings by James S. Hotchkiss, dance by David Lison and Sylvia Schneider" (acting in the role of "Shylock"). The play went the entire season, and S. published in 1947 the dramatization in the English adaptation of Abraham Regelson.

"Shylock and His Daughter", A Play, based on a Hebrew novel by Ari Ibn Zahav, Dramatized by Maurice Schwartz, English translation by Abraham Regelson, Yiddish Art Theatre, New York, 1947, 146 pp.

And after the season he went again, together with Charlotte Goldstein, to Argentina, where he directed "Shylock and his Daughter", and the play "Kol Yisrael (The Voice of Israel)".

S. opened the 1948-49 season again in the "Public" Theatre for his "Art Theatre" with his production of the play "Kol Yisrael (The Voice of Israel)" by Elihu (Elias) Gilner, then S. directed here the comedy "Hershel Ostropoler (Hershel the Jester)" by Moshe Livshitz [according to S., he really performed his own play, written in reymen, which didn't have any relevance to Livshitz's play], music by Joseph Rumshinsky (acting in the title role of "Hershele Ostropoler").

For lack of an original play, S. proclaimed through the I. L. Peretz Writers' Union in New York, where he defined(?) one-thousand dollars for a contest for original Yiddish plays, but the response did not satisfy the request.

After the season, S. guest-starred again across the province and went to act in Argentina, where he guest-starred for eleven weeks in the "Mitre" Theatre (Director Willy Goldstein and Miriam Lehrer), where he directed "Hershele Ostropoler" and "Three Gifts", and revived the production of "Tilim yid" and Kobrin's "Tsurik tsu zayn folk".

1949-1950 season -- S. opened again in the "Public" Theatre with the "Art Theatre" on 17 October 1949 with the offering of his dramatization of Sholem Aleichem's novel "Yosele Solovey (Yosele, the Nightingale)", music by Sholom Secunda, settings by Leon Foch, from Buenos Aires (acting in the role of "Gedalye Bass"), and also revived the production of "Shylock and his Daughter".

1950-51 season -- S. no longer opened the season with the "Art Theatre", but toured within the province with a troupe, acting in a new adaptation of Kobrin's "Riverside Drive", calling it part of the time "Nakhes fun kinder", and prepared to guest-star in Brazil, as he had been invited by Hollywood to perform in the movies, where he acted in the role of the "King's Overseer" in "Salome" (with Rita Hayworth and Charles Laughton), and in the role of "Daniel" in "Di shklavn fun babel", returning to New York, went into in February-March 1951 a series of Yiddish productions from his repertoire, and he traveled to the land of Israel to celebrate the bar-mitzvah of his adopted son Menachem (Marvin -- ed.).


photo, rt.: Maurice Schwartz as "Shylock" in "Shylock and his Daughter".

Being in the land of Israel, S. gave twenty-one word concerts in Hebrew and Yiddish, directing in July 1951 in Hebrew with the "Ahl" Theatre Peretz Hirshbein's comedy "A farvorfn vinkl (A Faraway Corner)" (Pinah Ndkht), and performed in Yiddish with a presentation about theatre problems in an opshid evening arranged for the "Histadrut". S. flew to Paris, where he performed with a word concert and from there flew to Argentina, where he created several productions in which he participated, and then he performed in word concerts in Chile, Brazil, Uruguay, Columbia and Cuba.

In the Spring of 1952 S. performed in English, at first in Boston, Philadelphia, and in May 1952 in New York in the "Booth" Theatre the monodrama "Conscience" from Pedro Bloch, wrote in the "Forward" a series of articles about spiritual and economic matters of Yiddish theatre and evoked a discussion with the Yiddish Actors Union and the United Yiddish Workshops. S. again was called out to Hollywood, where he acted in the role of "Kishuf-makherin (the witch)" in the film "The Bird of Paradise" (with Debra Paget, Jeff Chandler and Louis Jordan), and he went to Mexico, where he directed on 21 September 1952 in the "Iris" Theatre Jonah Rosenfeld's "Konkurentn (Competitors)", under the name of "Velvel Balebaste", and evoked a big discussion between Solomon Kahan, Yitzhak Berliner, Avraham Weissbaum, Jacob Glatstein and Shmuel Rozhansky.

In March 1953 S. opened in Los Angeles in the "Civic Playhouse" his Yiddish theatre in English with the offering of "Teyk now dey son" by Camille Honig (acting as the "father"), and then he directed in English Sholem Aleichem's "Hard to be a Jew" which was played for sixteen weeks consecutively. In September 1953 S. directed here in English Sholem Aleichem's "Sender Blank's Family, and put also, into English the preview of Gordin's "God, Man and Devil" (acting as "Uriel Mazik").

In April 1954 S. guest-starred in Brazil, where he acted for eight weeks, and here he directed under the direction, in his Yiddish translation, Honig's play "Take Now Thy Son", under the name "Der mshpt", and in Yiddish, "The Struggle for the Negev" by Mosenson, then he went for the first time with the troupe of twenty-three people to South Africa, where he acted in Yiddish for eight weeks in Johannesburg and two weeks in Capetown, and went back with the troupe to act in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where he directed "The Three Gifts".

In December 1955 S. acted in the "National Theatre" in New York, in English, Sholem Aleichem's "Hard to be a Jew", under the name "The Grass is Always Greener", and then he directed in English Moliere's "The Miser", acting in the title role.

His plays in English in a theatre in the Jewish area evoked deep protests by the Yiddish Actors Union which made the following decisions: "From  today on and hence forth, the privilege of acting in Yiddish theatre with actors of the Yiddish Actors Union has been taken away from Maurice Schwartz, and the union should no longer deal with anything created by Maurice Schwartz". S. remarked in his answers that he had with all the powers provided to play Yiddish theatre, but the conditions hadn't additionally left, he had taken the work for an English impresario. After a long discussion, and the newspapers and the bold were the "ban" was removed, and after a long conversation again there was created a social committee for the "Yiddish Art Theatre", and on 10 October 1955 S. opened the 1955-56 season of the "Yiddish Art Theatre" (in the "National" Theatre) with his production of L. Treister's "Der pastekh-kenig (The Shepherd King)" (playing "King Sol"), the play and the offering evoked a large discussion in the Yiddish press and slowly declared by the author and the members of the social theater committee. S. revived in the theatre several repertoire plays, and after ten weeks closed the theatre, and S .then traveled to Montreal, where he directed "The Struggle for the Negev" and repertoire.

S. again traveled to Israel to study the local Hebrew theatre field and flew to Argentina, where he planned to establish the "secular Yiddish Art Theatre". Here he opened the season on 25 April 1956 with the offering of his dramatization of Sholem Asch's novel "Grossman and Son" ("Passage of the Night"), where he acted in the role of "Mr. Grossman", and directed thereof, that the kehillah of Buenos Aires consisted of a monthly subsidy of 20,000 pesos. S. also directed there other plays from his repertoire. Arriving back in September 1956 in New York, where a press conference he developed his plan for a traveling, secular Yiddish art theatre, went back to Argentina together with his adopted daughter Frances, directing there "Yosele solovey", and with her, "Esterke", "Kiddush Hashem", "Uncle Moses" and "The Wise Men of Chelm", but the plan for establishing the "art theatre" in Argentina [did not succeed] due to [the fact] that the benefit system was not implemented, and that the local audience did not attend the midweek productions, and did not look for a subsidy for the kehillah that knew a stable Yiddish art theatre did not exist [there] (?).

After touring with word concerts and plays from his repertoire, S. opened in April, in English, in Los Angeles the "Ivar" Theatre, with Moshe Dluzhnovski's play "Di einzame shif" (acting in the role of "Captain"), but soon he closed the theatre, returning to New York, traveling over the province with Yiddish productions, turning back to New York, where he directed on 25 November 1958 in the "Anderson" Theatre in his Yiddish translation and adaptation of the Jewish-American comedy "A lakh in kop" by Arnold Shulman, acting in the role of "Max", and went then to Canada, where he directed in English Sholem Aleichem's "Hard to be a Jew" and "Tevya the Milkman", in Yiddish.

In 1959 S. went to Cleveland, where he directed with the members of the drama center for the Jewish community centers in Cleveland, in English, from 15 February until 8 March, "Yoshe Kalb" (acting in the role of the "Neshever rabbi"), and on 10 March he said goodbye to Cleveland with a concert program in Yiddish.

S. wrote a series of articles about Yiddish actors, writers, personalities, theatrical articles about theatre problems, had from May until September 1926 printed in the Philadelphia "Idishe velt" in a fictional form, eighteen articles about the old Yiddish theatre, and in 1957 in the Argentinean "Ididshe tsaytung" a series of articles about Sholem Asch, and had issued records: "Vkhlklkus" by Sholom Elikhm, "A khazan a shkhur", "Der fonfevater magid", "Der meshuggener moshiakh", "A chazan vos hust" and "In altn beis hamedrash".

S. is the president of the committee of the "Lexicon of the Yiddish Theatre".

S.'s wife Anna (Bardovska) directed with the social side of their productions. Their adopted children Menachem (Marvin) and Feigele (Frances) participate with him in his productions.

M. and S.E.

  • B. Gorin -- "History of Yiddish Theatre", Vol. II, pp.224,  235-249.

  • Zalmen Reyzen -- "Lexicon of Yiddish Literature", Vol. IV, pp. 515-21.

  • [--] -- Eyner fun di ingste idishe aktyoren, "Forward", N. Y., 18 October 1912.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Tsvey yunge aktyoren entferen oyf adler-tshalndzh, dort, 15 January 1913.

  • [--] -- Mr. Adler entfert shvarts'n un shnayer'n, dort, 18 January 1913.

  • Jacob Kirschenbaum -- Kunst un kinstler, "Di idishe velt", Cleveland, June 1915.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- Tsvey idishe theater-forshtelungen, "Forward", N. Y., 20 February 1917.

  • D. B. [Sh. Yanovsky] -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 24 February 1917.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Ken nyu york oyshalten a beseren idishen teater, "Der tog", N. Y., 22 March 1918.

  • J. Entin -- Di erefenung fun irving place teater, "Di varhayt", N. Y., 3 September 1918.

  • D. B. -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 7 September 1918.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- Der mensh un zayn shoten, "Forward", N. Y., 11 September 1918.

  • Uriel Mazik [Alter Epstein] -- In irving place theater, "Der tog", N. Y., 28 September 1918.

  • Israel the Yankee [Israel Freedman] -- Bernard shaw's "mrs. varen's profeshon", "Yidishes tagblat", N. Y., 4 October 1918.

  • B. Gorin -- Dimovs nayeste piese in irving place theater, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 31 October 1918.

  • J. Entin -- Dimov's alt-naye piese in irving place theatre, "Di varhayt", N. Y., 31 October 1918.

  • B. Gorin -- A literarishe piese un a melodrame, "Moring Journal", N. Y., 10 November 1918.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- Osip dymov's naye piese in irving place theater, "Forward", N. Y., 12 November 1918.

  • J. Entin -- Der triumf fun der literarisher piese, "Di varhayt", N. Y. 17 November 1918.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- A brief fun moris shvarts der shoyshpiler, "Forward", N. Y., 29 November 1918.

  • Ab. Cahan [answer], dort.

  • A Theatre Patriot -- Literarishe hofungen oyf di idishe bihne, dort.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- A naye piese fun dovid pinski in shvarts' theater, "Forward", N. Y., 13 December 1918.

  • J. Entin -- Dovid pinski's interesante piese, "Di varhayt", N. Y., 15 December 1918.

  • Uriel Mazik-Saul Raskin -- Tsvey maynungen vegen dovid pinski's nayeste piese, "Der tog", N. Y., 21 December 1918.

  • D. B. -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 21 December 1918.

  • A. B. -- A vort vegn hirshbein's "farvofrn vinkel", "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 18 January 1919.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- "Sukses", a naye piese in irving place teater, "Forward", N. Y., 13 February 1919.

  • Israel the Yankee -- Di teater velt, "Yidishe Tageblat", N. Y., 14 February 1919.

  • Luminus -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 15 February 1919.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- Dovid pinski's "oytser" endlikh oyfnefihrt oyf der idisher bihne, "Forward", N. Y., 21 February 1919.

  • J. Entin -- Dovid pinski's "der oytser" oyf der idisher bihne, "Di varhayt", N. Y., 22 February 1919.

  • J. Entin -- Hirshbeins tsveyte komedye in irving place teater, "Di varhayt", N. Y., 26 February 1919.

  • A. F. [Frumkin] -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 17 May 1919.

  • A. F. -- In theater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 6 September 1919.

  • S. Dingol -- "Oyfn opgrund" fun maksim' gorki in moris shvarts teater, "Der tog", N. Y., 2 January 1920.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Gorki's drama "oyfn opgrund" in shvarts' theater, "Der tog", "Forward", N. Y., 14 January 1920.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- Amol in may, dort, 7 May 1920.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Menedzhers un stars in unzer idishe theater velt, dort, 17 July 1920.

  • L. K. [L. Kusman] -- "Di goldene kayt" in irving place teater, "Dos idishe folk", N. Y., 11 September 1920.

  • Ab. Cahan -- A tsu shehne piese in shvarts' theater, dort, N. Y., 15 September 1920.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Fier eyntselne akten in shvarts' theater, "Forward", 19 December 1920.

  • Saul Ruskin -- A kunst-ovent in shvarts' irving place teater, "Di tsayt", N. Y., 24 December 1920.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Yushkevitsh un shvarts' theater, "Forward", N. Y., 11 February 1921.

  • B. Gorin -- An orimans khoum, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 21 February 1921.

  • M. Grim -- Teater notitsen, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 1 April 1921.

  • A Diletant -- Anski's "dybuk" in shvarts' kunst-teater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 9 September 1921.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- A brief tsum "forverts", "Forward", N. Y., 15 September 1922.

  • R. Guskin -- Di aktyoren yunion entfert oyf di menus fun moris shvarts, dort, 6 October 1922.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Der zanderbarer shikzal fun "anathema" in moris shvarts' oyffihrung, dort, 13 April 1923.

  • [--] -- Moris shvarts tsveyte erfahrung oyf der englisher bihne, dort, 2 May 1923.

  • L. Kesner -- Moris shvarts als mishka tsiganak", "Yidishes tagblat", N. Y., 9 November 1923.

  • [--] -- Shvarts kunst-teater in vien, "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, 9, 1924.

  • Ezer Warshavsky -- M. shvarts' kunst teater in pariz, "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, N' 10, 1924.

  • Moshe Gross -- Dos nyu-yorker yidishe kunst-teater in pariz, "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, N' 13, 1924.

  • [--] -- Shvarts teater, leiviks shmates un di deytshe prese, dort, 15, 1924.

  • Jacob Mestel -- Der gurl fun "shabses tsvi", "Frayhayt", N. Y., 11 January 1924.

  • L. Kusman -- Lemplekh, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 25 January 1924.

  • Regidebl [Der lebediker] -- Drame eyn drame oys, "Der groyser kunds", N. Y., 7 March 1924.

  • Jacob Mestel -- Ver zaynen di kinstler fun dem zyu yorker idishen kunst teater, "Di tsayt", London, 11 April 1924.

  • Morris Meyer -- Der erfolg fun moris shvarts' kunst teater, dort, 28 April 1924.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Der idisher kunst theater un di iden fun london, dort, 2 May 1924.

  • Kritikus [Morris Meyer] -- A meyster shtrikh fun h' moris shvarts, dort, 16 May 1924.

  • J. Entin -- Der letster teater sezon, "Di tsukunft", N. Y., June 1924.

  • B. Grebniev -- Moris shvarts un zayn trupe hobn groys erfolg in london, "Frayhayt", N. Y., 6 January 1924..

  • Jacob Mestel -- Di oyftuen fun moris shvarts, "Yidishe morgenpost", Vienna, 20 July 1924.

  • M. Osherowitz -- A geshprekh mit moris shvarts vegn zayn rayze un vegen zayn shpielen in eyropa, "Forward", N. Y., 27 August 1924.

  • M. Ring -- Vos kon men hey-yor dervartn fun yidishn kunst-teater, "Frayhayt", N. Y., 29 August 1924.

  • N. Buchwald -- Leah rozen, "der dybuk" un moris shvarts, ort, 5 September 1924.

  • L. Kesner -- An intervyu mit moris shvarts, "Yidishes tagblat", N. Y., 3 October 1924.

  • R. Guskin -- Farvos di aktyoren hoben erklert a strayk in shvarts' theater, "Forward", N. Y., 29 October 1924.

  • [Maurice Schwartz] -- Shvarts git iber zayn tsd vegen shtrayk in kunst teater, "Morning Journal", 30 October 1924.

  • L. S. Bieli -- A vort vegn dem strayk bey shvarts', "Yidishes tagblat", N. Y., 31 October 1924.

  • Schwartz's tenus tsu di aktyoren un vos di aktyoren yunion entfert, "Forward", N. Y., 1 November 1924.

  • Sholem Perlmutter -- Tshikave fakten fun shvarts' kariere, "Der tog", N. Y., 30 January 1925.

  • M. Eizman -- Moris shvarts iniz gevorn an aktyor gegen zayn taten's vilen, "Tog", N. Y., 19 March 1925.

  • A "Forward" Reporter -- A tumel iber a kontrakt vos shvarts hot gemakht mit yurok'n, "Forward", N. Y., 10 April 1925.

  • Moishe Nadir -- "Mayne hent hobn fargosn dos blut", N. Y., 1925, pp. 191-204.

  • [--] -- Shvarts zegent zikh mit zayn teater in medison skver garden, "Forward", N. Y., 8 May 1925.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- Unzer  teater-kinstler, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 17 July 1925.

  • Morris Meyer -- A gelegnheyt far a groysn kinstlerishen genus, "Di tsayt", London, 28 July 1925.

  • Ch. Ehrenreich -- A geshprekh mit moris shvarts vegen zayn neksten sezon oyf brodvay, dort, 18 August 1925.

  • [--] -- Moris shvarts un zayn nayer farfaser m. tsharnov, dort, 16 October 1925.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- In tsvey kunst theaters, dort, 23 October 1925.

  • Jacob Kirschenbaum -- Moris shvarts vegen dem krizis in idishen theater, "Der amerikaner", N. Y., 27 November 1925.

  • [--] -- A geshprekh mit shvarts'en vegen zayn nayem theater, "Forward", N. Y., 23 April 1926.

  • [--] -- A klage gegen shvarts'n un a klage gegen shvarts'es trupe, dort, 2 July 1926.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts entfert, dort, 9 July 1926.

  • Mark Schweid -- Mark shvayd entfert moris shvarts'n, dort, 16 July 1926.

  • N. Buchwald -- Di naye orientatsyes fun undzere kunst-teater, "Der hamer", N. Y., October 1926.

  • Sidney Gordon [Chaim Ehrenreich] -- Dinstog efent zikh der nayer teater, "Forward", N. Y., 12 November 1926.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Moris shvarts' tsehn-yohriger yom tov, dort, 25 February 1927.

  • B. Smoliar -- Moris shvarts, "Kanader Odler", Montreal, 2 March 1927.

  • B. Botwinick -- Der tsehn-yohriger yubileum fun shvarts' kunst-teater, "Der veker", N. Y., 19 March 1927.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts git an erklerung vegen zayn teater, "Forward", N. Y., 6 May 1927.

  • Ch. Ehrenreich -- Moris shvarts dertsehlt vegen zayne plener farn kumenden sizon, dort, 12 August 1927.

  • [--] -- Tsile adler shraybt tsum "forverts" farvos zi in avek fun shvarts's teater, moris shvarts's erklerung, dort, 9 September 1927.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- teater menedzhers shrayben tsum "forverts" vegen der itstiger lage fun dem idishen teater, dort, 4 November 1927.

  • Jacob Mestel -- Zeks koyln-tsaykhenungen, "Yiddish Theatre",  Warsaw, 1927, p. 195.

  • Irma Kraft -- "Play, Players, Playouses, International Dram of Today," N. Y., 1928, pp. 170-176.

  • Zalmen Zylbercweig -- "Vos der yidisher actyor dertsaylt", Vilna, 1928, pp. 5, 12-13, 21-26.

  • A. Frumkin -- Moris shvarts vegen krizis, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 6 January 1928.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Ikh un dos publikum, "Der tog", N. Y., 13 January 1928.

  • L. S. Bieli -- Vegen moris shvarts' avekgehn fun idishen kunst teater, "Yidishes tagblat", N. Y., 23 March 1928.

  • A. Glantz -- Der suf fun a 10 yerigen garzukh, "Der tog", N. Y., 23 March 1928.

  • N. Buchwald -- Exit -- moris shvarts, "Frayhayt", N. Y., 25 March 1928.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- Di fersholtene brirh, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 4 April 1928.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Tsum untergang fun moris shvarts' kunst-teater, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 22 April 1928.

  • Ch. Ehrenreich -- Moris shvarts' plener vegen zayn nayem teater, "Forward", N. Y., 6 September 1928.

  • Jacob Kirschenbaum -- Moris shvarts iz ful mit hofenungen vegen dem nayes teater-sezon, "Moring Journal", N. Y., 10 September 1928.

  • Ab. Cahan -- "Kiddush Hashem" in shvarts' kunst teater, "Forward", N. Y., 22 September 1928.

  • Moshe Shmsh -- Moris shvarts' oyfte in sholem ash's "kiddush hashem", "Di idishe bekers shtime", N. Y., 5 October 1928.

  • Ab. Cahan -- "God mensh un tayvel" -- ibergemakht, "Forward", N. Y., 25 December 1928.

  • A. Glantz -- God mentsh un shvarts, "Der tog", N. Y., 27 December 1928.

  • N. Buchwald -- Interesante oyffirung fun "got, mentsh un tayvel" in idishn kunst teater, "Frayhayt", N. Y., 28 December 1928.

  • Chaim Weiner -- "Got, mensh un tayvl", "Der ferband", N. Y., N' 55, 1929.

  • Y. Shames -- Ash "kidush hashem" in nyu-yorker idishn kunst teater, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 18 January 1929.

  • Der lebediger -- Moris shvarts -- der "tayvel", "Morning Journal", N. Y., 31 January 1929.

  • Avraham Teitelbaum -- "Teatralia", varshe-nyu york, 1929, pp. 46-47.

  • Moishe Nadir -- Teg fun mayne teg, "Frayhayt", N. Y., 16, 17 February 1929.

  • Ab. Cahan -- A drame fun sholem aleichem's an alten roman, "Forward", N. Y., 12 March 1929.

  • Sholem Perlmutter -- Moris shvarts, der grinder fun idishen kunst teater un der boyer fun beserer drama, "Di idishe velt", Philadelphia, 10 May 1929.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Farvos moris shvarts hot farloyren dem siti teater, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 18 June 1929.

  • Ts. H. Rubinstein -- M'darf a idishen kunst-teater mit oder ohn moris shvarts'n, "Der tog", N. Y., 15 August 1929.

  • A. Rotblatt -- Di tragi-komedye tsvishen moris shvarts un zayn kunst-teater-trupe in los angeles, "Forward", N. Y., 23 August 1929.

  • Y. Levitt -- Moris shvarts shikt erklerung tsum "forverts" vegen der pasirung in los angeles, dort, 24 August 1929.

  • A. Glantz -- Tsu a gezelshaftlekhen idishen kunst-teater, "Der tog", N. Y., 24 August 1929.

  • M. Osherowitz -- Tsilia adler entfert oyf der erklerung fun moris shvarts, "Forward", N. Y, 27 August 1929.

  • Ch. Ehrenreich -- Moris shvarts farzikhert az er vet hoben a teater gor in kurtsen, dort, 30 August 1929.

  • B. Y. Goldstein -- Oyf der teater evenyu, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 6 September 1929.

  • B. Rivkin -- Di idishe reprezentatsye oyf brodvay", dort, 4 October 1929.

  • B. Y. Goldstein -- Oyf der avenyu, "Fraye arbayter shtime", 4 October 1929.

  • M. Osherowitz -- Moris shvarts' naye teater in zayne naye plener, "Forward", N. Y., 8 October 1929.

  • Hillel Rogoff -- "Id zis", a shtarke interesante piese in shvarts' teater, dort, 23 October 1929.

  • William Edlin -- "Id zis" in idishen kunst teater, "Tog", N. Y., 24 October 1929.

  • A. Leyeles -- Arum teater, "Di vokh", N. Y., N' 4, 1929.

  • A. Marevsky -- Briv fun leyener, dort, N' 6, 1929.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- "Id zis", "Morning Journal", N. Y., 25 October 1929.

  • B. Y. Goldstein -- Oyf der teater evenyu, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 25 October 1929.

  • M. Shmsh -- "Id zis" in idishen kunst teater, "Di idishe bekers shtime", N. Y., 8 November 1929.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Tsvelf yohr kunst teater, "Tog", N. Y., 16 November 1929, "Morning Journal", N. Y.,  17 November 1929.

  • Lebediger -- Loz op di kapote, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 22 November 1929.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- Arum teater, dort, 22 November  1929.

  • M. Osherowitz -- "Dovid kessler un muni veysenfreynd", N. Y., 1930, pp. 8, 31, 32, 160, 185, 187, 190, 195, 197, 199, 200, 205, 209, 211, 215, 219, 221, 227, 228, 234, 235.

  • Moshe Starkman, Jacob mestel and Dr. Jacob Shatzky in retsenzies in "archive far der geshikhte fun yidishn teater un drame", Vilna-New York, 1930, pp. 469, 494, 496, 504.

  • A. Leff -- Arum teater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 31 January 1930.

  • Ab. Cahan -- A naye sholem aleichem piese in shvarts' kunst-teater "Forward", N. Y., 31 January 1930.

  • Moshe Shmsh -- "Blondzhende shtern", "Di idishe bekers shtime", N. Y., 7 February 1930.

  • Aaron Kanievsky -- A idishe un a goyishe "id zis" -- geshpilt fun moris shvarts un moris moshkovitsh, "Der tog", Philadelphia, 28 March 1930.

  • Joel Entin -- Fun der teater-velt, "Tsukunft", N. Y., March 1930.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts vegen zayn kunst-trupe, "Der tog", N. Y., 11 April 1930.

  • A. K. [Ab. Cahan] -- Moris shvarts hot groysen erfolg oyf der amerikaner vodevil stage, dort, 25 April 1930.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Shylock in Vaudeville; The Day, N. Y., April 27, 1930.

  • Ch. Ehrenreich -- Vu un mit vemen vet moris shvarts shpiln neksten sizon, "Forward", N. Y., 17 May 1930.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Moris shvartsn -- boruch hba! "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 17 June 1930.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- "Id zis" oyfgefirt in teater 'nueva' durkh moris shvarts, "Der idisher tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 23 June 1930.

  • T. Beilin -- Moris shvarts der kontrasten kinstler, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 27 June 1930.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts bashraybt zayn rayze keyn argentine, "Forward", N. Y., 28 June 1930.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Chaya, getsendiner, mentsh. Vegn moris shvarts' oyffirung fun sholem ash "god fun nekome", "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 29 June 1930.

  • Shmeul Rozhansky -- Sholem ash's "got fun nekome" oyfefihrr durkh moris shvarts in nueva, "Der idisher tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 29 June 1930.

  • Y. B. -- Moris shvarts' oyffirung fun peretz hirshbeins "dem shmids tekhter", "Di prese",  Buenos Aires, 30 June 1930.

  • Inz. Reuben Ziger -- Moris shvarts, vi oykh hob im gezen, dort, 2 July 1930.

  • T. Beilin -- Moris shvarts un dos kinstlerishe geshtalt, dort, 4 July 1930.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Moris shvarts' dovid shapiro un zayn oyffirung fun sholem aleichem's "shver tsu zayn a yid", dort, 6 July 1930.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- "Der blutiger" oyfgefihrt durkh moris shvarts in teater "nueva", "Der idisher tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 7 July 1930.

  • Y. Altman -- Got fun teater, "dos naye vort", Buenos Aires, N' 32, 1930.

  • N. Shpringberg -- Moris shvarts' durkhfal in b. eyres, "Pnimer un pnimlakh", Buenos Aires, N' 306, 1930.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Moris shvarts in ernst tolers "hinkeman", "Prese", Buenos Aires, 7 July 1930.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Husfh tsu der retsenzye vegn moris shvarts "hinkeman" un nokh epes, dort, 14 July 1930.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Ibsen's "gayster" oyfgefirt durkh moris shvarts in teater "nueva", "Der idisher tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 14 July 1930.

  • H. Bloshtein -- Moris shvarts -- unzer klasn-shuna, "M"F", N. Y., 18 July 1930.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- "Kidush hashem" oyfgefirt fun moris shvarts in teater argentino, "Ad"t", 21 July 1930.

  • T. Beilin -- Moris shvarts un dos haylike shnayerl, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 25 July 1930.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Moris shvarts in a nayer groyser kreatsye, "konkurentn" fun yonah rozenfeld, dort, 27 July 1930.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- "Konkurentn" (fun yonah rozenfeld) oyfgefirst durkh moris shvarts in teater "argentino", "Der idisher tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 27 July 1930.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Moris shvarts oyffirung fun zhulavskis "shabse tsvi", "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 3 August 1930.

  • Shmeul Rozhansky -- Andreyevs "zibn gehangene" oyfgefirt durkh moris shvarts in teater "argentino", "Der idisher tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 8 August 1930.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Moris shvarts un di yidishe literatur, dort, 14 august 1930.

  • Dr. L. Zhititsky -- Moris shvarts -- der gezukhter emes funm shoyshpiler un teater, dort, 14 August 1930.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Moris shvarts er shoyshpiler, "Der idisher tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 14 August 1930.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Moris shvarts' oyffirung fun goldfadens "kuni lemel", "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 18 August 1930.

  • I. L. Gruzman -- Tsu moris shvarts' ern-ovnt, "Shpigel", Buenos Aires, N' 59, 1930.

  • Moshe Dovid Giser -- Tsvishn tuviah un "id zis", "Naye vort", Buenos Aires, N' 26, 1930.

  • H. Brosilovski -- Kidsh hashem geshpilt fun moris shvarts in teater "argentino", dort, N' 30, 1930.

  • Amelia Adler -- Dos lebn fun a idisher akterise, "Di idishe velt", Cleveland, 2 September 1930.

  • Y. Brunstein -- Moris shvarts, "Idishe folkstsaytung", Rio, 22 September 1930.

  • Menasha Halpern -- Der kinstler, dort, 22 September 1930.

  • A. Zilberman -- Moris shvarts, dort, 22 September 1930.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Erklerung fun moris shvarts vegen bashlus fun der aktyorn yunion, "Der tog", N. Y., 11 October 1930.

  • N. B. Linder -- Haynt efent moris shvarts zayn kunst teater, dort, 24 October 1930.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Sholem ash's "di kishuf makherin fun kastilien" in shvarts' kunst teater, "Forward", N. Y., 31 October 1930.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Sholem ashs' "onkel mozes" in shvarts' kunst teater, dort, 3 December 1930.

  • William Edlin -- "Onkel mozes", "Tog", N. Y., 5 December 1930.

  • B. Y. Goldstein -- Oyf der teater evenyu, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 12 December 1930.

  • Tsingetang -- Dos idishe teater in 1930, "Di prese', Buenos Aires, 1 January 1931.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Tsurik in montreal, "Kanader odler", Montreal, 27 March 1931.

  • Israel Rabinowitz -- Moris shvarts in "tuviya der milkhiger", dort, 30 March 1931.

  • N. Y. Gottlieb -- Der bazukh fun moris shvarts in montreal, dort, 6 April 1931.

  • Israel Rabinowitz -- "Der blutiger gelekhter", dort, 21 May 1931.

  • I. Rabinowitz -- "Der man mitn'n portfel, dort, 24 May 1931.

  • Jacob Mestel -- egn moris shvarts un yakov ben ami, "Teater un kino", Buenos Aires, 5 June 1931.

  • B. Y. Goldstein -- Der nayer metsenat fun idishn kunst-teater, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 5 June 1931.

  • Israel Rabinowitz -- "Kidush hashem", "Kanader odler", Montreal, 21 June 1931.

  • Mark Yuri -- Moris shvarts, "Chicago", Chicago, July 1931.

  • N. B. Linder -- 16 idishe teaters zaynen shoyn grayt zikh tsu efenen far'n nayes sezon, "Der tog", N. Y., 25 August 1931.

  • [--] -- An erklerung fun moris shvarts, "Forward", N. Y., 27 August 1931.

  • John Mason Brown -- Maurice Schwartz in "If I Were You", "New York Evening Post", N. Y., Sept. 24, 1931.

  • J. Brook Atkinson -- The Play, "The New York Times", N. Y., Sept. 24, 1931.

  • Bob Granis -- Schwartz Stars in Well-acted Jewish Comedy, "Evening Graphic", N. Y., Sept. 24, 1931.

  • Dr. A. M. -- Sholem aleichem oyf english, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 25 September 1931.

  • William Edlin -- Idish teater -- in idish oyf der evenyu un in english oyf brodvay, "Der tog", N. Y., 25 September 1931.

  • HIllel Rogoff -- Moris shvarts oyf brodvay, "Forward", N. Y., 26 September 1931.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts dertsehlt vegen zayn sholem-aleichem piese oyf der englisher bihne, "Forward", N. Y., 29 September 1931.

  • B. Y. Goldstein -- Ba di goyem in glus, nebakh, "Fraya arbayter shtime", N. Y., 2 October 1931.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Zats, for gezunt!, dort, 10 October 1931.

  • Berta Gerstin -- Moris shvartz, "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, N' 43, 1931.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- Arum teater, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 16 October 1931.

  • Ludwig Satz -- Zants entfert moris shvarts'en, "Forward", N. Y., 18 November 1931.

  • B. Y. Goldstein -- Brodvay antikn, "Fraye arbayter shtime", N. Y., 11 December 1931.

  • T. Beilin -- Notitsn un bamerkungen, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 11 December 1931.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Vi brodvay kumt oyf sekond avenyu, "Forward", N. Y., 26 December 1931.

  • William Edlin -- Shvarts firt oyf "velf" oyf brodvay, "Der tog", N. Y., 8 January 1932.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Moris shvarts in der piese "velf" oyf english, "Forward", N. Y., 3 January 1932.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts baklogt zikh oyf zayne amolige movie partners, dort, 8 February 1932.

  • S. Regensburg -- Moris shvarts in zayn nayester oyffirung -- "Der gefangener got", "Di idishe velt", Philadelphia, 9 March 1932.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts gekindept, "Forward", N. Y., 18 March 1932.

  • Kh. G. -- "Onkel mozes" in klinton st. teater un benusan teater, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 25 April 1932.

  • Zalmen Zylbercweig -- Vegn getes verk in yidish, "LIterarishe bleter", Warsaw, N' 19, 1932.

  • D. Kaplan -- A idishe toki fun sholem ash "onkel mozes", "Forward", N. Y., 25 April 1932

  • B. F-r -- Moris shvarts efnt fhoyn vider a "naye epokhe" mit "onkel mozes", "Morgn frayhayt", N. Y., 27 April 1932.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Moris shvarts in an iberzetster piese in folks teater, "Forward", N. Y., 28 April 1932.

  • E. Fleishman -- "Onkel mozes" als ershte gut idishe "toki", "Der tog", N. Y., 28 April 1932.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Mit vos kum ikh itst kayn poylen, "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, N' 22, 1932.

  • L. Mlach -- Sholem ash "onkel mozes" a herndiker film, dort, N' 23, 1932.

  • [N. M.] -- Moris shvarts -- borukh hba!, dort, N' 25, 1932.

  • Zalmen Zylbercweig -- Moris shvarts, dort, N'  25, 1932.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Bey di folks-kvaln, dort, N' 26, 1932.

  • N. Mayzel -- Der aktyor un kinstler, dort, N' 26, 1932.

  • B. [Zelig Bok-Minkov] -- Gezegn-oyftrit fun moris shvarts farvandlt in a folks-feyerung, "Folksblat", Kovno, N' 689, 1932.

  • Zelig Minkov -- A grus fun moris shvartsn, dort, N' 697, 1932.

  • Zelig Minkov -- Moris shvarts oyfgenumen bagaystert fun kovner iden, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 8 June 1932.

  • Jacob Patt -- Moris shvarts' oyftrit in "filharmonye", "Naye folks-tsaytung", Warsaw, 15 June 1932.

  • A. Zeltser [A. Eynhorn] -- Brief fun varshe, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 11 July 1932.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Vi halt es itst mitn yidishn teater in amerike, "Literarishe bleter", Warsaw, N' 37, 1932.

  • M. G. Volpert -- Fun folk tsu folk, "Forward", N. Y., 5 September 1932.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Fun folk tsu folk, dort, 12 September 1932.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Farvos di heym fun a idishen kinst-teater darf zayn do, "Der tog", N. Y., 30 September 1932.

  • W. H. -- Maurice Schwartz In a Vivid New Play of Chasidic Life, "Daily News", N. Y., Oct. 3, 1932.

  • Ab. Cahan -- I. J. singer's "yoshe kalb" oyf der bihne fun shvarts' kunst-teater, "Forward", N. Y., 4 October 1932.

  • William Edlin -- Di oyffihrung fun "yoshe kalb" in idishen kunst teater, "Der tog", N. Y., 6 October 1932.

  • Moshe Shmsh -- In idishen kunst teater, "Di idishe bekers shtime", N. Y., 28 October 1932.

  • Joel Entin -- In idishen teater, "Tsukunft", N. Y., November 1932.

  • Moshe Riblub -- Zoah khkhh shl kahsidius, "Hruar", N. Y., 4 November 1932.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- Yoshe kalb in teater, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 11 November 1932.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- Chaim lederer, dort, 18 November 1932.

  • William Edlin -- "Dos leben fun chaim lederer als piese, "Der tog", N. Y., 18 November 1932.

  • Pluni and Cahan(?) -- Yona zeht "yoshe kalb", "Morning Journal", N. Y., 30 November 1932.

  • H. T. S. -- Schwartz Does a Double Morley, "The Times," N. Y., December 1, 1932.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- Parodye un komedye, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 9 December 1932.

  • "Maurice Schwartz's Production Yoshe Kalb", by I. J. Singer, N. Y., 16 pp., 1932.

  • Moris shvarts numer "der shpigl", Buenos Aires, N' 184-185, 1933.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Tsvishn forhang un leyvnt, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 6 January 1933.

  • Ch. Ehrenreich -- Moris shvarts dertsehlt a shehn meshh'le vos hot mit ihm amol pasirt, "Forward", N. Y., 20 March 1933.

  • [--] -- Mountain About to Pay-Visit to "Yoshe Kalb's" Mohammed, "The Chicago Daily News", March 21, 1933.

  • Charles Collins -- "Yoshe Kalb" Drama of Yiddish Customs and Folklore at Hand, "Chicago Sunday Tribune", Chicago, April 9, 1933.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Moris shvarts instsenirung fun i. j. singers "yoshe kalb", "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 28 July 1933.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Arum der teatraler hipnoze fun "yoshe kalb", "Di idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 31 July 1933.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Gordin's "got, mensh un tayvl", baarbeyt un oyfgefirt fun moris shvarts, dort, 20 August 1933.

  • "Literarishe bleter", gevidmet "15 yor yidish kunst-teater in amerike", mit artiklen fun nakhman mayzel, zalmen, zylbercweig, jacob botoshansky, mark anstein, i. m. nayman, michael weichert, i. j. singer, avraham morevsky, zalmen reyzen, aaron zeitlin, l. melakh, joseph green, bilder fun moris shvartsn in farshidene roln, List of Repertoire, Warsaw, 40-41 1933.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Moris shvarts, dort, 42, 1933.

  • Zalmen Zylbercweig -- Di lebns-geshikhte fun moris shvarts, dort, Warsaw, 44, 48, 1933.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Der yidisher teater-oylem in nyu york un dos yidishe kunst-teater, dort, 52, 1933.

  • William Edlin -- Forvos "yozefus" un "khlemer khomim" zaynen durkhgefaln, "Der tog", N. Y., 22 December 1933.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Mayne teg fun troyer un fraynd in filadelphye, "Di idishe velt", Philadelphia, 23 February 1934.

  • A. H. Bialin -- "Moris shvarts un der yidisher  kunst teater", New York, 1934, p. 124.

  • Y. D. Brinman -- Fun bikher-tish "moment", Warsaw, 11 May 1934.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- Bikher un shrayber, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 20 May 1934.

  • A. Vizhand -- A. h. bialin un der kunst teater, "Masn", N. Y., May 1934.

  • D. Yaffe -- A bazukh bey moris shvarts in holyvood, "Haynt", Riga, 12 October 1934.

  • Jacob Mestel -- Teater-literatur oyf yidish, "Bodn", N. Y., October-November, 1934.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Farvos der yidisher "kunst-teater" shlist zikh frier vi ale mol, "Literarisher bleter", Warsaw, 9, 1934.

  • Chaim Ehrenreich -- A grus fun moris shvarts, dort, 39, 1934.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- Teatr-notitsn, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 5 April 1935.

  • M. Frank -- Di oyffihrung fun "yoshe kalbe" in pariz, "Der tog", N. Y., 9 May 1935.

  • Y. Feldman -- In pariz iz himel un erd iun "yoshe kalb", "Forward", N. Y., 1 June 1935.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts dertsehlt vi pariz hot oyfgenumen di forshtelungen fun kunst-teater, dort, 9 July 1935.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Idishe aktyoren filmen in nyu york, "Di prese", Vuenos Aires, 19 August 1935.

  • Leon Weinstock -- Pierwsca Premiera Morisa Schwarza w Polsce, "Chwila," Lwow, 10, 15, 1935.

  • [--] -- Erefung fun moris shvarts "kunst-teater", "Literarishe bleter" Warsaw, N' 41, 1935.

  • M. Kitay -- Moris shvarts, dort.

  • N. Mayzil -- Ershte oyffirung in moris shvarts' kunst-teater, dort, N' 42, 1935

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Mayn ershte oyffirung in varshe, dort, N' 43, 1935.

  • Felx Fridman -- Geshtaltn fun i. j. zinger's "Yoshe kalb" in moris shvarts kunst-teater in varshe, dort,  N' 43, 1935.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Di filazophye un yushr punim shoyshpiler, dort, N' 49, 1935.

  • N. M. -- Yakov gordin's "got, mentsh un tayvel" in moris shvarts' kunst-teater, dort, N' 3, 1936.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Der protses fun oyffasn roln, dort, N' 50, 1935.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Otem, plastik, gris, kostyum, dort, N' 52, 1935.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Rezhi, dort, N' 2, 1936.

  • [--] -- Y. gordin's "got, mensh un tayvl" bey moris shvartsn, dort.

  • N. M. -- Yakov gordin's "got, mentsh un tayvel"  in moris shvarts' kunst-teater, dort, N' 3, 1936.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- A briv fun moris shvarts, dort, N' 5, 1936.

  • N. Mayzel -- "Shver tsu zayn a yid" bey moris shvarts in varshe, dort, N' 9, 1936.

  • Nachman Mayzel -- Gezegnungs-forshtelung fun moris shvarts in varshe, dort, N' 9, 1936.

  • M Kitay -- Prmiere "yud zis" in moris shvarts' kunst-teater in lodz, teater, "Rozmaniatshoshti", N' 17, 1936.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Vegn foykhtvangers "yud zis", dort, N' 18, 1936.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Sholem aleichem als dramaturg, dort, N' 25, 1936.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Tsum yidishn oylem in poyln, dort, N' 27, 1936.

  • [--] -- Mit m. shvarts' kunst-teater in vien, dort, N' 34, 1936.

  • Oscar Ostroff -- Der kbls punim far moris shvarts, dort, N' 46, 1936.

  • Zalmen Zylbercweig -- "Teater-figurn", Buenos Aires, 1936, pp. 118-126.

  • Shfirtak [Moishe Naidir] -- A nit-derhaltn brivl fun moris shvarts, "Morgn frayhayt", N. Y., 21 February 1936.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- A brif fun moris shvarts fun varshe, "Forward", N. Y., 7 March 1936.

  • T. Beilin -- Notitsn un bamerkungen "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 26 June 1936.

  • Maurice Schwartz dertsehlt di tsurus vos er iz oysgeshtanen in der itstiger antisemitisher vien, "Forward", N. Y., 14 October 1936.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- Moris shvarts -- "Morning Journal", N. Y., 23 October 1936.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Di iden, der idisher teater un idishe prese in england, "Forward", N. Y., 24 October 1936.

  • B. Kdr -- Moris shvarts vsiatrunu mkhbr a. h. beilin, "Bmh", Tel Aviv, October 1936.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Di naye piese vos moris shvarts shpilt itst oyf brodvay, "Forward", N. Y., 6 November 1936.

  • N. Buchwald -- "Dhak bergson" in kunst teater, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 6 November 1936.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Bamerkungen fun moris shvarts vegn edlin's kritik iber der drame "zhak begson", "Der tog", N Y., 7 November 1936.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts dertsehlt vi er hot geshpilt in idishen teater in varshe, "Forward",  N. Y., 14 November 1936.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Vos s'hot zikh opgeton in varshe ven moris shvarts dos dort oyfgefirt "yoshe kalb", dort, 16 November 1936.

  • M. A. Kh. [Katz] -- Tog-eyn tog-oys, "Morgen Frayhayt", N. Y., 30 December 1936.

  • R. Ben-Ari -- "Habimah", Chicago, 1937, pp. 327-8.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts vegen der frage fun di "gefeferte frozen" in preger's "vasertreger", "Der tog", N. Y., 18 January 1937.

  • B. Ts. Goldberg -- In gang fun tog, dort, 25 January 1937.

  • Ab. Cahan -- "Di grenits" -- a naye piese fun moris shvarts' kunst teater, "Forward", N. Y., 12 February 1937.

  • Y. Shpigelman -- Moris shvarts vet kegen shpiln idish teater in palestine, "Forward", N. Y., 20 February 1937.

  • Zalmen Zylbercweig -- Di vider oyflebung fun moris shvarts kunst teater in nord ameike, "Folksblat", Montevideo, 14 March 1937.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Dos idishe kunst teater in filadelfye, "Idishe velt", Philadelphia, 19 March 1937.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Di naye hays fun idishen kunst teater oyf brodvay, "Forward", N. Y., 19 March 1937.

  • Boris Thomashefsky -- Zayn lebens-bukh, "Forward", N. Y., 24, 25 March 1937.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Tsvishn forhang un leyvnt, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 7 May 1937.

  • Rudis -- Moris shvarts -- der zindiker, "Idisher kemfer", N. Y., 4 June 1937.

  • A "Forward" Reporter -- Moris shvarts brengt bagaysterten grus fun erets yisrael, "Forward", N. Y., 23 July 1937.

  • Shmuel Gluz -- "Yoshe kalb" in hekhreishn teater, "Unzer ekspres", Warsaw, 9 July 1937.

  • Y. Shpiegelman -- Moris shvart's groyser erfolg in palestine, "Forward", N. Y., 19 July 1937.

  • A. L-s [Leyeles] -- Moris shvarts' glik-troym, "Inzikh", N. Y., 35, 1937.

  • Herman Green -- Di probe fun i. j. singer's "di brider ashkhenzai", "Forward", N. Y., 10 September 1937.

  • Joel Entin -- I. j. singer's in moris shvarts' "di brider ashkhenazi", "Idisher kemfer", N. Y., 15 October 1937.

  • M. Ginzburg -- Moris shvarts vegen di naye tendentsen fun idishen teater, "Kanader odler", Montreal, 25 March 1938.

  • Nachman Mayzel -- Moris shvarts bey der arbet, "di idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 26 April 1938.

  • Y. Ben-Hillel -- A vort in tsayt, dort, 6 June 1938.

  • Aba Sheyn -- Fun nohent un vays, dort, 7 July 1938.

  • I. R. [Rabinowitz] -- Tog-eyn, tog-oys, "Kanader odler", Montreal, 7 June 1938.

  • B. Smoliar -- Moris shvarts' skhsukh mit dotshild'n in pariz, "Forward", N. Y., 16 June 1938.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts bashraybt azyn bagegenish mit baron rothsild un pariz, dort, 18 June 1938.

  • W. Vieviorka -- Di gastroln fun moris shvarts-kunst teater a sensatsye in pariz, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 28 June 1938.

  • Zerubovel -- M'tor nit felshn dem kultur-pertsuf fun di yidishe masn, dort, 3 July 1938.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Tsvishn forhang un leyvnt, dort, 5 August 1938.

  • Shmuel Gluz -- Mit moris shvarts beym breg fun tel aiver im, "Di idishe shtime", Kovno, N' 6037, 1938.

  • B. Ts. Goldberg -- In gang fun tog, "Der tog", N. Y., 12 August 1938.

  • Der lebediger -- Dem emes zogendig, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 19 August 1938.

  • I. Shpigelman -- Moris shvarts shpilt "yoshe kalb" oyf hebreish in arbayter teater un tel-aviv, "Forward", N. Y., 5 September 1938.

  • M. Jaffe -- Moris shvarts' oyftrit oyf hebrish in tel-aviv, "Der tog", N. Y., 6 September 1938.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts bashraybt zayn itstige rayze in palestine, "Forward", N. Y., 10 September 1938.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts bashraybt di oyfname vos m'hot im gemakht in tel aviv , dort, 17 September 1938.

  • M. J. Olgin -- "Deep Independent Thinking", "Morning Freiyeit," N. Y., 12 October 1938.

  • Moshe Katz -- "Drey shtet -- a piese fun a groyser tsetumeltkeyt, "Morgen Frayhayt", N. Y., 13 October 1938.

  • Ab. Cahan -- Sholem ash's "drey shtet", dramatizirt fun moris shvarts,, "Forward", N. Y., 13 October 1938.

  • Sh. Yudson -- "Drey shtet" fun sholem ash, in moris shvarts' kunst teater, "Moring Journal", N. Y., 14 October 1938,

  • Joel Entin -- Moris shvarts' dramatizatsye fun ash's "drey shtet", "Idisher kemfer", N. Y., 21 October 1938.

  • Chaim Ehrenreich -- Der idisher kunst teater efent zayn nayes sezon mit a monumentaler oyffirung, "New York Weekly", N. Y., 28 October 1938.

  • A teateral -- Moris shvarts' oyffirung fun sholem ash "drey shtet" hot iberrasht un nisht oysgenumen, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 2 December 1938.

  • N. Frank -- Riziger erfolg fun moris shvarts in "vasertreger", "Parizer haynt", Paris, 16 April 1939.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Shtrikhen, "Di idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 18 April 1939.

  • W. Vieviorka --Moris shvarts hot vider eyngenumen pariz, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 21 May 1939.

  • J. Kirschenbaum -- Moris shvarts shildert tragedye fun di "fargesene" idishe aktyoren, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 22 June 1939.

  • B. Levitin -- Moris shvarts dertsehlt vegen zayn rayze in europe un vegen zayne plener far'n kumenden sezon, "Forward", N. Y., 23 June 1939.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- "Vakeyshn folis fun "khorverts" in kunst-teater , "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 28 September 1939.

  • Joel Entin -- Der nayer teater-sezon, "Idisher kemfer", N. Y., 6 October 1939.

  • Z. Shuster -- Shoyn eynmol a velt, "Der tog", N. Y., 11 October 1939.

  • Joel Entin -- Moris shvarts, "Idisher kemfer", N. Y., 27 October 1939.

  • J. Kirschenbaum -- Shvarts' naye piese "ven ikh bin rothshild" -- muzikalishe komedye, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 13 December 1939.

  • B. Levitin -- Moris shvarts tsurik in teater, not a shverer krankheyt, "Forward", N. Y., 13 December 1939.

  • B. Ts. Goldberg -- In gang fun tog, "Der tog", N. Y., 15 December 1939.

  • S. Dingol -- Mit ofene oygen, dort.

  • N. Buchwald -- "Tuviya der milkhiger" in a film, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 22 December 1939.

  • Eillen Greelman -- The New Movies, "The New York Sun", N. Y., Dec. 22, 1939.

  • Chaim Gutman -- "Tuviya der milkhiger" fun sholem aleichems an oysgetsaykhente movie, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 24 December 1939.

  • L. Fogelman -- "Tuviya der milkhiger" in a movie, "Forward", N. Y., 25 December 1939.

  • William Edlin -- Sholem aleichem's "tuviya der milkhiger" als film in kontinental teater, "Der tog", N. Y., 26 December 1939.

  • W. S. -- Yiddish Art Theatre Comedy, "The New York Times", N. Y., January 1, 1940.

  • HIllel Rogoff -- "Ven ikh bin rothshild", a naye komedye in dem idishen kunst teater, "Forward", N. Y., 5 January 1940.

  • Amkha -- Tog-eyn, tog-oys, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 26 January 1940.

  • M. Melamed -- Moris shvarts als yekhiel in sholem ash's "tehilim id", itst in volnat teater, "Di idishe velt", Philadelphia, 13 March 1940.

  • A. L. -- Btitrun, "Hadoar", N. Y., N' 11, 1940.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Di gefahr vos loyert oyf'n idishen teater in amerike, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 1 July 1940.

  • Rivkah Shneid -- Dem lezer's platform, dort, 25 July 1940.

  • E. Kebin -- Der idisher teater oylem un der tsaytungs-lezer, "Der tog", N. Y, 29 July 1940.

  • Louis Flashenberg -- Musr khngd musr, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 12 August 1940.

  • Sholom Secunda -- A brivl fun sholom sekunda, "Tog", N. Y., 22 August 1940.

  • B. Y. Goldstein -- Tsvishn di shurus, "Der tog", N. Y., 9 September 1940.

  • Joel Entin -- A sezon idish kunst teater, "Der idisher kemfer", N. YU., 7 March 1941.

  • B. Levitin -- Moris shvarts kumt fun zikh amerike; brengt yunge primadona far zayn kunst teater, "Forward", N. Y., 12 September 1941.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Idisher kunst-teater kon zikh nit efenen, "Forward", N. Y., 22 September 1941.

  • [--] -- Di yom tovdike teg zey zaynen shoyn avek... "Teater", Buenos Aires, N' 3, 1941.

  • Y. Sigel -- Moris shvarts' groyser erfolg in shikago, "Forward", N. Y., 6 February 1942.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Shtrikhn, "Idishes tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 6 February 1942.

  • N. Buchwald -- Erev dem nayem teater-sezon, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 7 September 1942.

  • [--] -- A shmooze mit moris shvarts'n vegen zayn morgendigen debut in shpanishen teater, "Idishes tsaytung", 11 September 1942.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Shtrikhn, "Der idishe tsaytung",19 October 1942.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Teater-retsenzyes, "Der idishe tsaytung", 3 November 1942.

  • -- Haynt premiere fun sh. anski's "dybuk" in shpanish, ofgefihrt fun moris shvarts, "Idishes tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 20 November 1942.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Moris shvarts' oyffihrung fun anski's "dybuk"  in shpanish, a teme far alemen, dort, 22 November 1942.

  • -- A shmooze mit di shpanishe aktyoren velkhe shpilen in moris shvarts' oyffihrung fun sh. anski's "dybuk", dort, 25 November 1942.

  • [--] -- A hartsiger un a interesanter gezegn-akt fun shpanishe shoyshpiler, idishe shrayber un teater-fraynt lkhbud moris shvarts' tsu zayn offoren, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 1 December 1943.

  • B. Levitin -- Idish teater shtark getrofen in zikh-amerike tsulib mlkhmh, meldet moris shvarts, "Forward", N. Y., 18 December 1942.

  • N. Buchwald -- "Teater", Nyu york, 1943, pp. 54, 56, 97, 263, 265, 340, 362, 382, 384-409, 412-15.

  • Chiene Yafe -- Moris shvarts tret tsu mit energye un bren tsu dem nayes teater sezon, "Der tog", N. Y., 11 May 1943.

  • E. Feldman -- "Kiddush Hashem", oyfgefirt fun moris shvarts, "Kanader idish vokhnblat", Toronto, 10 June 1943.

  • A. Epstein -- Moris syvarts dertsehlt vegen zayne plener tsum nayem sezon, "Der tog", N. Y., 26 June 1945.

  • Mordechai Rubinstein -- Vos denkt dos folk?, dort, 5 July 1946.

  • [-] -- A briv fun moris shvarts tsum hign aktyorn farayn, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 23 November 1946.

  • Ch. Gutman -- "Blondzhende shtern" fun sholem aleichem in idishen kunst teater, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 20 December 1946.

  • Z. Zylbercweig -- Moris shvarts' kunst-teater shpilt itst sholem aleichem's "blondzhende shtern", "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 3 January 1947.

  • Elikhm's "blondzhende sherN', "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 3 January 1947.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Shtrikhn, dort, 18 August 1947.

  • Zalmen Zylbercweig -- Moris shvarts efent nayem sezon mit a yidish natsionale piese dort, 18 August 1947.

  • [--] -- A bagegenish fun moris shvarts'n mit progresive idishe firer un kultur-tuer, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 20 August 1947.

  • [--] -- An oyfruf far dem idishen kunst teater in nyu york, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 26 August 1947.

  • Zalmen Zylbercweig -- Ir darft dos visn!, "Der amerikaner", N. Y., 22, 29 August 1947.

  • [Maurice Schwartz] -- Moris shvarts shraybt a brief tsu der gezelshaft fun idishen kunst teater, "Morning Journal", 2 September 1947.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Shtrikhn, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 17 September 1947.

  • Brooks Atkinson -- The New Play, "The New York Times", N. Y., September 30, 1947.

  • Louis Biangolli -- Shylock As The Victim of Venice, "New York World-Telegram", September 30, 1947.

  • J. J. -- A New Shylock, "The New York Sun", September 30, 1947.

  • Kahn -- Yiddish Plays, "Variety", N. Y., October 1, 1947.

  • Jeanette Wilken -- Schwartz In An Authentic New "Shylock", "Daily News", N. Y., October 1, 1947.

  • Richard A. Yaffe -- "Shylock and Daughter" Sets Record Straight, "P. M.", N. Y., October 6, 1947.

  • Richard Watts Jr. -- Yiddish Art Company Offers Shylock Play, "New York Post", October 7, 1947.

  • Robert Garland -- Impressive Drama Presented on 2nd Ave., "New York Journal American", N. Y., October 7, 1947.

  • C. B. -- "Shylock and His Daughter", "Women's Wear Daily", N. Y., October 7, 1947.

  • Rabbi Louis I. Newman -- A Letter, "Aufbau", N. Y., October 10, 1947.

  • Osip Dymov -- Mali pikon un moris shvarts, "Forward", N. Y., 21 September 1947.

  • Zalmen Zylbercweig -- Idishe teaters dem sezon iber aerike, "er idisher zhurnal", Toronto, 22 September 1947.

  • Ch. Gutman -- "Shaylok un zayn tokhter" in idishen kunst teater, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 2 October 1947.

  • L. Fogelman -- "Shaylok un zayn tokhter" in idishn kunst teater, "Forward", N. Y., 3 October 1947.

  • William Edlin -- "Shaylok un zayn tokhter" efens sezon fun kunst teater, "Der tog", N. Y., 3 October 1947.

  • Z. Zylbercweig -- Zuntog di folks-konferents vegen besern idishen teater, "Morning Journal", N. Y. 19 December 1947.

  • Wolf Mercur -- "Merkoyozn", Philadelphia, 1948, pp. 44-45, 55-56, 114-115, 234.

  • Julius Adler -- 60 yor oyf der idishere bine, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 28, 29 January, 16 April 1948.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts entfert oyf der frage, velkhe fun zayne file rolen in di balibtste bey ihm, "Forward", N. Y., 2 June 1948.

  • Osip Dymov -- Mali pikon un moris shvarts, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 27 June 1948.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Shtrikhn, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 16 July 1948.

  • M. Yardeni -- Idishe kinstler fun der gantser velt kumen keyn argentine un gefinen dort hayse "patriotn", "Der tog", N. Y., 11 September 1948.

  • M. Osherowitz -- 30 yor idish kunst teater,  "Forward", N. Y., 7 January 1949.

  • K. H. -- Moris shvarts' oyffirung fun "shaylok un zayn tokhter", "Der idisher zhurnal", Toronto, 4 February 1949.

  • Y. S. Kersht -- Moris shvarts' naye plener far dem 31-ten yohr kunst-teater, "Forwardd", N. Y., 22 April 1949.

  • Dr. N. Swerdlin -- Beym forhang, "Der tog", N. Y., 29 April 1949.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Shtrikhn, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 22 May 1949.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Idish teater in nyu york un -- buenos aires, dort, 10 June 1949.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts shraybt a brif fun argentine, "Forward", N. Y., 3 September 1949.

  • Ch. E. [Ehrenreich] -- Moris shvarts kumt tsurik bgaystert fun zikh amerike, "Forward", N. Y., 19 September 1949.

  • F. Sandler -- A shmooze mit moris shvarts'n, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 27 September 1949.

  • Julius Adler -- Meshus fun der idisher teater-velt, dort, 2 October 1949.

  • N. Buchwald -- "Vegn yosele solovey", "Morgen frayhayt",  N. Y., 11 November 1949.

  • Max Delaf, Menasha Elin -- Briv vegn teater, dort, 9 December 1949.

  • Boaz Young -- "Mayn lebn in teater", N. Y., 1950, pp. 186-187, 197-99, 212, 330-31, 396-97.

  • N. Buchwald -- Tsvey briv fun moris shvarts mit an entfer, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 31 March 1950.

  • [--] -- "Riverside Drive", "The Boston Herald", Boston, April 4, 1950.

  • Edwin F. Melvin -- Maurice Schwartz Starring With Yiddish Art Players, "The Christian Science Monitor", Boston, April 4, 1950.

  • Claudia Cassidy -- Yiddish Theater Comes a Cropper in Dull Play with Maurice Schwartz, "Chicago Daily Tribune", April 21, 1950.

  • Barbara Berch Jamison -- "From Second Avenue to Vine Street", "The New York Times", N. Y., August 8, 1950.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Shtrikhn, "Idishe tsaytung", "Buenos Aires", 20 August 1950.

  • N. Buchwald -- Moris shvarts iz vier "avek", "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 21 August 1950.

  • L. Kusman -- Likht un shoten, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 12 October 1950.

  • [--] -- Moris shvarts iz a gast in nyu york layder oyf a veyl, "Forward", N. Y., 13 October 1950.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Ver iz shuldig vos der idisher kunst-teater in untergegangen, "Morning Journal", N. Y., 18 October 1950.

  • Sholem Perlmutter -- Veln mir hobn kumendign yor a dramatish teater?, "Der tog", N. Y., 24 January 1951.

  • Ch. E. -- Moris shvarts' gezegenungs forshtelung in parvay, "Forward", N. Y., 2 March 1951.

  • L. Fogelman -- Moris hvarts naye oyffirung fun "riversayd drayv", dort, 9 March 1951.

  • Sid Green -- Moris shvarts in der movie "boyrd ov paradiz", dort, 19 March 1951.

  • Yitzhak Turkow-Grundberg -- "Yidish teater in poyln", Warsaw, 1951.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Pesakh tsum sdr in tvrih, "Forward", L. A., 16 May 1951.

  • I. Shmulewitz -- Moris shvarts' rayze kayn israel, priz un beunos aires, dort, 14 July 1951.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Teater-retsenzyes, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 16 July 1951.

  • R. [Rozhansky] -- Sholem aleichem iz sholem aleichem, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 25 September 1951.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Mayne akht viziten in buenos aires, dort, 23 October 1951.

  • N. Buchwald -- Moris shvarts -- der doktor fun krankn idishn teater, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 21 December 1951.

  • Brooks Atkinson -- "Once Around the Sun", N. Y., 1951, pp. 301-2.

  • N. Buchwald -- Babske rfuaus farn idish teater, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 21 December 1951.

  • Sholem Perlmutter -- "Idishe dramaturgn un teater-kmpozitors", N. Y., 1952, pp. 144, 238, 240, 255, 277-280, 300, 309-310.

  • D. Z. -- Fun khodosh tsu khodosh, "Yidishe kultur", N. Y., N' 6, 1952.

  • -- An erklerung fun der idisher aktyoren yunion vegen di artiklen fun moris shvarts, "Forward", N. Y., 12 February 1952.

  • N. Buchwald -- Tsu vos hot dos moris shvarts geton?, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 24 May 1952.

  • Chaim Gutman -- Shvarts in an englisher piese oyf brodvay "Day-Morning Journal", N. Y., 26 May 1952.

  • Solomon Cahan -- A briv tsu moris shvarts, "Dos vort", Mexico, September 1952.

  • A. Vaysboym -- Male vos m'redt, "Der veg", Mexico.

  • A. Observer -- Un dos zol zayn idish teater?, "Forvoys", Mexico, N' 180, 1952.

  • Jacob Glatstein -- Prost un pshut, "Day-Morning Journal", N. Y., 10 November 1952.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Shtrikhn, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 18, 19 November 1952.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Ibergetribene faynshmekerishkeyt "Der veg", Mexico, 13 December 1952.

  • Boaz Young -- Moris shvarts' englishe oyffirung fun "shver tsu zayn a yid" in los anzheles, "Day-Morning Journal", N. Y., 19 May 1953.

  • Dr. A. Mukdoni -- Yidishe kultur in amerike, "Di goldene kayt", Tel Aviv, N' 17, 1953, pp. 191-92.

  • [--] -- Moris shvarts loybt di aktyorn yunion un ir prezident, "Forward", N. Y., 6 October 1953.

  • Herman Kvins -- Moris shvarts un zayne naye plener far'n idishen teater, "Forward", N. Y., 15 December 1953.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Farvos ikh hob gebiten dem nomen fun "shver tsu zayn a yid", "Forward", N. Y., 25 December 1953.

  • [--] -- Iden in der velt, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 19 May 1954.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Shtrikhn, dort, 29 July 1954.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Mayn kolege tenenholtz, "Eliyahu tenenholts' yubl-bukh", Los Angeles, 1955, pp. 56-58.

  • Sarah Hammer Jaklin -- Fun amolikn amol, dort, p. 67

  • N. Buchwald -- Di idishe aktyorn-yunion hot arayngelaygt moris shvarts'n in khrm -- Farvos? "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 5 February 1955.

  • N. Buchwald -- Moris shvarts -- oyf english, dort, 7 February 1955.

  • Mark Schweid -- "Shver tsu zayn a yid" -- in an englisher oyffirung, "Forward", N. Y., 11 February 1955.

  • Brooks Atkinson -- "The Grass is Always Greener", "The New York Times", N. Y., Feb. 16, 1955.

  • Walter F. Kerr -- "Grass is Always Greener", "The New York Herald Tribune", N. Y., Feb. 16, 1955.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts kritikirt di "forverts" kritik, "Forward", N. Y., 23 February 1955.

  • Chaim Ehrenreich -- Moris shvarts farendigt zayn "englishen sezon", dort, 25 March 1955.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Farvos der neshonal teater hot zikh geshlosn, "Forward", N. Y., 30 March 1955.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Moris shvarts shraybt a brif tsum eygentimer fun neshonal teater, dort, Los Angeles, 7 April 1955.

  • [--] -- Miting fun aktyorn yunion tsiht tsurik rezolutsye gegen moris shvarts'n, "Forward", N. Y., 21 April 1955.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Albert einstein bey a forshtelung fun "yoshe kalb", dort, 23 April 1955.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Der gezelshaftlekher idisher kunst-teater, dort, 31 May 1955.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Nyu yorker idisher kunst-teater in oykh noytig fr andere idishe yeshuvim, "Forward", N. Y., 4 July 1955.

  • Dr. N. Swerdlin -- a geshprekh mit louis gordon, prezident fun banayten idishen kunst teater in nyu york, "Day-Morning Journal", N. Y., 19 July 1955.

  • [--] -- Oyfruf fun di fareyntike idishe landsmanshaften vegen banayten idishen kunst-teater, "Forward", N. Y., 19 September 1955.

  • M. Yardeni -- Interviews mit idishe teatraln, "New York Weekly", N. Y., 30 September 1955.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Strikhen, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 9 November 1955.

  • B. Ts. Goldberg -- In gang fun tog, "Day-Morning Journal", N. Y., 17 November 1955.

  • L. Fogelman -- Di banayte oyffirung fun "di brider ashkenazi" in idishn kunst-teater, "Forward", N. Y., 19 November 1955.

  • D. N. Swerdlin -- Beym forhang, "Day-Morning Journal", N. Y., 24 November 1955.

  • B. Ts. Goldberg -- In gang fun tog, "Day-Morning Journal, N. Y., 24 November 1955.

  • Ch. Ehrenreich -- Vet mer nit zayn kayn idisher kunst teater in nyu-york?, "Forward", N. Y., 9 December 1955.

  • Gabriel Prevor -- His Greatest Hit Was Off Stage, "Sunday Mirror Magazine", N. Y., January 1, 1956.

  • [--] -- Der entfer fun moris shvrts, "Forward", N. Y. 11 February 1956.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Idish teater in pariz un london, "Forward", N. Y., 8 March 1956.

  • Y. Horn -- Gastshpilen in b. aires bmskhkh a fersl yorhundert, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 29 March 1956.

  • [--] -- Moris shvarts redt vegn itstigen mtsb fun idishn teater un vegen zayne plener farn hey-yorigen sezon in b. aires, dort, 1 April 1956.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Shtrikhn, dort, 25 April 1956.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Der fantastisher plan vert realistet, dort, 25 May 1956.

  • D. Mendelzon -- Vos hot pasirt mitn idishn teater in argentine?, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 25 June 1956.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Hot der idisher teater teater a tsukunft?, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 27 September 1956.

  • [--] -- Moris shvarts grindet a kunst teater in argentine, "Forward", N. Y., 8 September 1956.

  • [--] -- Farvos moris shvarts shtelt-eyn dem kunst-teater in argentine, dort, 19 October 1956.

  • Chaim Ehrenreich -- Moris shvarts in gekuen aher eyntsuhandlen piesen fr zayn teater in argentine, dort, 5 February 1957.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Shtrikhn, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 31 March 1957.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- "Yosele solovey" a groyser, vunderisheyner hartsiger muzikalishr spektakl, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 23 April 1957.

  • Shmuel Rohansky -- "Yosele solovey", "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 23 April 1957.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- A gelungene operatsye, dort, 24 April 1957.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- "Esterke" fun aharon tseytlin, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 30 May 1957.

  • Shmuel Rozhansky -- Idish-poylish in spektakl "esterke", "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 2 June 1957.

  • Jacob Botoshansky -- Aharon tseytlins "eserke" in moris shvarts' kunst-teater, "Di prese", Buenos Aires, 2 June 1957.

  • [Leon Brest] -- Buenos aires in lebedig dem teater sezon, "Forward", N. Y., 7 June 1957.

  • [--] -- "Blondzhende shtern", groyse oyffirung fun m. shvarts in kunst-teater, "Idishe tsaytung", Buenos Aires, 9 July 1957.

  • Chaim Ehrenreich -- Moris shvarts dertsehlt frvos der kunst teater kon nit ekzistiren in argentine, "Forward", N. Y., 3 October 1957.

  • Chaim Ehrenreich -- Moris shvarts opgeforen shpilen english teater in los andzheles, dort, 20 March 1958

  • Yud Shin -- Moris shvarts' naye plener far'n idishen teatr, dort, 11 July 1958.

  • Maurice Schwartz -- Di piese vos moris shvarts grayt tsu farn neksten sezon, "Forward", N. Y., 26 July 1958.

  • Dr. N. Swerdlin -- Dramatisher vidoy fun a idishn brodvay-dramaturg, "Day-Morning Journal", N. Y., 11 November 1958.

  • Dr. N. Swerdlin -- Beym forhang, "Daily Morning Juornal", N. Y., 27 November 1958.

  • L, Fogelman -- "A lokh in kop" in anderson teater, "Forward', N. Y., 28 November 1958.

  • A. H. Bialin -- "Sholem ash", Mexico, 1959, pp. 65.

  • Israel Rabinowitz -- Notitsen iber tog-fragen, "New York Weekly", 30 January 1959.

  • Glenn C. Pullen -- Stage Faces By The Dozen, Cleveland Plain Dealers, Cleveland, February 11, 1959.

  • Stan Anderson -- Maurice Schwartz Urged to Start Yiddish Art Theater Here, "The Cleveland Press", February 16, 1959.

  • A. Strauss -- A shmooze mit moris shvarts'n, "Morgen frayhayt", N. Y., 20 March 1959.











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